Chapter 9 TRAP Routines and Subroutines System Calls Certain operations require specialized knowledge and protection: specific knowledge of I/O device registers and the sequence of operations needed to use them I/O resources shared among multiple users/programs; a mistake could affect lots of other users! Not every programmer knows (or wants to know) the level of detail required Solution: Provide service routines or system calls OS code to perform low-level operations
9-2 System Call 1. User program invokes system call. 2. Operating system code performs operation. 3. Returns control to user program. In LC-3, this is done through the TRAP mechanism. 9-3 LC-3 TRAP Mechanism 1. A set of service routines. part of operating system -- routines start at arbitrary addresses (In LC-3, system code is below x3000, except for Trap 25 code) up to 256 routines
2. Table of starting addresses Trap Vector Table. stored at x0000 through x00FF in memory called System Control Block in some architectures 3. TRAP instruction. used by program to transfer control to operating system 8-bit trap vector names one of the 256 service routines 4. A linkage back to the user program. want execution to resume immediately after the TRAP instruction 9-4 TRAP Instruction Trap vector identifies which system call to invoke 8-bit index into table of service routine addresses
in LC-3, this table is stored in memory at 0x0000 0x00FF 8-bit trap vector is zero-extended into 16-bit memory address Where to go lookup starting address from table; place in PC How to get back save address of next instruction (current PC) in R7 9-5 TRAP NOTE: PC has already been incremented during instruction fetch phase. 9-6 RET (JMP R7)
How do we transfer control back to instruction following the TRAP call? We saved old PC in R7. JMP R7 gets us back to the user program at the right spot. LC-3 assembly language lets us use RET (return) in place of JMP R7. Must make sure that service routine does not change R7, or we wont know where to return. 9-7 TRAP Mechanism Operation 1. Lookup starting address. 2. Transfer to service routine. 3. Return (JMP R7).
9-8 Example: Using the TRAP Instruction AGAIN TERM ASCII EXIT .ORIG x3000 LD R2, TERM ; Load negative ASCII 7 LD R3, ASCII ; Load ASCII difference TRAP x23 ; input character
ADD R1, R2, R0 ; Test for terminate BRz EXIT ; Exit if done ADD R0, R0, R3 ; Change to lowercase TRAP x21 ; Output to monitor... BRnzp AGAIN ; ... again and again... .FILL xFFC9 ; -7 .FILL x0020 ; lowercase bit TRAP x25 ; halt
.END 9-9 Example: Output Service Routine .ORIG x0430 ST R1, SaveR1 ; ----- Write character TryWrite LDI R1, DSR BRzp TryWrite WriteIt STI R0, DDR ; ----- Return from TRAP Return LD
R1, SaveR1 RET DSR DDR SaveR1 .FILL xFE04 .FILL xFE06 .FILL 0 .END ; syscall address ; save R1 ; get status ; look for bit 15 on ; write char ; restore R1
; back to user stored in table, location x21 9-10 TRAP Routines and their Assembler Names vector symbol routine x20 GETC read a single character (no echo)
x21 OUT output a character to the monitor x22 PUTS x23 IN x25 HALT
write a string to the console print prompt to console, read and echo character from keyboard halt the program 9-11 Saving and Restoring Registers Must save the value of a register if: Its value will be destroyed by service routine, and We will need to use the value after that action. Who saves? caller of service routine? knows what it needs later, but may not know what gets altered by called routine called service routine? knows what it alters, but does not know what will be
needed later by calling routine 9-12 Example LEA LD LD AGAIN ASCII COUNT Binary R3, Binary R6, ASCII ; char->digit template R7, COUNT ; initialize to 10 TRAP x20
; Get char ADD R0, R0, R6 ; convert to number STR R0, R3, #0 ; store number ADD R3, R3, #1 ; incr pointer ADD R7, R7, -1 ; decr counter BRp AGAIN ; more? BRnzp NEXT .FILL xFFD0 Whats wrong with this routine? .FILL #10
.BLKW #10 9-13 Saving and Restoring Registers Called routine -- callee-save Before start, save any registers that will be altered (unless altered value is expected by calling program!) Ex: R0 in call to GETC Before return, restore those same registers Calling routine -- caller-save Save registers destroyed by own instructions or by called routines (if known), if values needed later save R7 before TRAP save R0 before TRAP x20 (get character) Or avoid using those registers altogether
Values are saved by storing them in memory. 9-14 Question Can a service routine call another service routine? If so, is there anything special the calling service routine must do? 9-15 What about User Code? Service routines provide three main functions: 1. Shield programmers from system-specific details. 2. Write frequently-used code just once. 3. Protect system resources from malicious/clumsy programmers. Useful for user code too!
9-16 Subroutines A subroutine is a program fragment that: lives in user space performs a well-defined task is invoked (called) by another user program returns control to the calling program when finished Like a service routine, but not part of the OS not concerned with protecting hardware resources no special privilege required
Reasons for subroutines: reuse useful (and debugged!) code divide task among multiple programmers use library of useful routines 9-17 JSR Instruction Jumps to a location (like a branch but unconditional), and saves current PC (addr of next instruction) in R7. saving the return address is called linking target address is PC-relative (PC + Sext(IR[10:0])) bit 11 specifies addressing mode if =1, PC-relative: target address = PC + Sext(IR[10:0]) if =0, register: target address = contents of register IR[8:6] 9-18
JSRR Instruction Just like JSR, except Register addressing mode. target address is Base Register bit 11 specifies addressing mode What can a JSRR do that a JSR cannot? 9-19 Returning from a Subroutine RET (JMP R7) gets us back to the calling routine. just like TRAP 9-20 Example: Negate the value in R0 2sComp
NOT ADD RET R0, R0 ; flip bits R0, R0, #1 ; add one ; return to caller To call from a program (within 1024 instructions): ; need to compute R4 = R1 - R3 ADD R0, R3, #0 ; copy R3 to R0 JSR 2sComp ; negate ADD R4, R1, R0
; add to R1 9-21 Passing Information to/from Subroutines Arguments A value passed in to a subroutine is called an argument. This is a value needed by the subroutine to do its job. Examples: In 2sComp routine, R0 is the number to be negated In OUT service routine, R0 is the character to be printed. In PUTS routine, R0 is address of string to be printed. Return Values A value passed out of a subroutine is called a return value. This is a value that you called the subroutine to compute. Examples:
In 2sComp routine, negated value is returned in R0. In GETC service routine, character read from the keyboard is returned in R0. 9-22 Using Subroutines In order to use a subroutine, a programmer must know: its address (or at least a label that will be bound to its address) its function (what does it do?) NOTE: The programmer does not need to know how the subroutine works, but what changes are visible in the machines state after the routine has run. its arguments (where to pass data in, if any) its return values (where to get computed data, if any) 9-23
Saving and Restore Registers Since subroutines are just like service routines, we also need to save and restore registers, if needed. Generally use callee-save strategy Save registers that the subroutine will alter internally that shouldnt be visible when the subroutine returns. Its good practice to restore incoming arguments to their original values (unless overwritten by return value). Save at beginning, restore at end Remember: You MUST save R7 if you call any other subroutine or service routine (TRAP). Otherwise, you wont be able to return to caller. 9-24 Example (1) Write a subroutine FirstChar to:
find the first occurrence of a particular character (in R0) in a string (pointed to by R1); return pointer to character or to end of string (NULL) in R2. (2) Use FirstChar to write CountChar, which: counts the number of occurrences of a particular character (in R0) in a string (pointed to by R1); return count in R2. Can write the second subroutine first, without knowing the implementation of FirstChar! 9-25 CountChar Algorithm (using FirstChar) save regs R4 <- 0
R1 <- R2 + 1 R4 <- R4 + 1 call FirstChar R3 <- M(R2) save R7, since were using JSR R2 <- R4 restore regs R3=0 no return yes
9-26 CountChar Implementation ; CountChar: subroutine to count occurrences of a char CountChar You Write! 9-27 FirstChar Algorithm save regs R3=R0 yes no
R2 <- R1 R2 <- R2 + 1 R3 <- M(R2) restore regs R3=0 no return yes 9-28 FirstChar Implementation ; FirstChar: subroutine to find first occurrence of a char
FirstChar You Write! 9-29 Library Routines Vendor may provide object files containing useful subroutines dont want to provide source code -- intellectual property assembler/linker must support EXTERNAL symbols (or starting address of routine must be supplied to user) SQAddr ... .EXTERNAL SQRT ... LD
R2, SQAddr JSRR R2 ... .FILL SQRT ; load SQRT addr Using JSRR, because we dont know whether SQRT is within 1024 instructions. 9-30 Lab 4 .EXTERNAL keyword not supported by assembler You can use JSR and labels for your subroutines because they will all be in the same file (separated by nice descriptive comment blocks). However, the data will be in a separate file. You will need to figure out the address of where labels will fall when the file is loaded.
Services can improve the quality and reliability of their data (e.g. SHERPA/Juliet) Services can more easily mesh policy requirements with permissions (e.g. Sherpa FACT, Sherpa REF) 09/05/2016. Title of presentation (Insert > Header & Footer > Notes and Handouts >...
Dormancy. A period of inactivity in a mature seedbeforeit begins to grow. It's like the seed is in a "sleep-state" Remains . dormant. until conditions are . right. for growth and development of the new plant.
G30™ A 3D graphics accelerator for mobile devices Petri Nordlund CTO, Bitboys Oy Outline Acceleon G30™ Acceleon family Architecture and features Advantages Hardware demonstration Acceleon G30™ A tiny graphics processor core for embedded- and handheld devices: Mobile handsets Gaming devices...
SENG 422 Lab 5 An Introduction to XML - XML, or Extensible Markup Language is a markup language using which you can create your own tags. - XML was created to overcome the shortcomings of HTML WHY XML? -HTML was...
An influence map is a grid placed over the game world, with values assigned to each square by an IMFunction. The IMFunction could be linear or non-linear. ... (N. FM, N EM, N FT, N ET . are the number...
Motion in Two Dimensions Chapter 7.2 Homework P. 158 9,10,11 P.160. 12,13. Projectile Motion What is the path of a projectile as it moves through the air? Parabolic? Straight up and down? Yes, both are possible. What forces act on...
In this PowerPoint, we will compare climate (temperature & precipitation) at 7 city locations.We will use maps and also climate graphs. Notice that these cities are located at different latitudes(at different distances north and south of the Equator).
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!