Asia: 8000 Bce - 600 Ce

Asia: 8000 Bce - 600 Ce

ASIA: 8000 BCE 600 CE Unit 1 Section 3 Dharma Quality of character Righteousn ess in their religious life Faith System Key Terms Karma

The sum of good and bad deeds done during ones life that determines the outcome of ones path in reincarnation More good than bad then you can move up in Reincarnatio n

More bad than good and your reincarnation will be of lower status or another species Reincarnatio n The rebirth in new lives for eternity unless you reach moksha

Can be in human form or other forms of life (animal, insectetc.) Moksha/ Nirvana Freedom from the differentiated, temporal, and mortal world of ordinary experience Perfect

understandin g and a release from life in this world Enlightenment Asceticism Self denial and meditation Giving up worldly pleasures in the pursuit of divine

enlightenment East Asia Settlement of agricultural communities began along the Yellow River in China around 8000 BCE By the 2nd millennium BCE the first Chinese dynasty emerged and foundation for 2 thousand years of Chinese history was established Over that time, China became an economic and political force that was often the envy of peoples near and far Early River Valley of Like other river valleyChina civilizations, early Chinese

settlements took advantage of the rich, fertile land along the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers Plants and animals were domesticated Stone and eventually bronze tools were used Pottery was produced on a wheel and fired in a kiln Labor was divided (stratification of labor by class and gender) Political and social structures took shape The geography of eastern Asia kept Chinese civilizations isolated from those in the Middle East and the Indus River Valley The climate of the southern region was well suited for growing rice, which produces a very high yield but requires substantial time and labor The population and the importance of the southern region eventually exceeded that of the northern region

Beginnings of the Shang In 1750 BCE the history of China truly began when the Shang clan rose to power From the Yellow River Valley, the Shang extended their control by means of their military strength and strategy The Shang were ruled by a king, who was seen as an intermediary between the gods and the people. To expand and mange the land, the king was aided by an aristocracy that acted as generals, ambassadors, and public servants Conquered territory was governed by members of the royal family, and far-off lands were left to native rulers who swore their allegiance to the king

Many of the conquered peoples were taken as prisoners of war and enslaved by the Shang rulers Social/ Political/ Economic Shang cities grew into political an social centers They were surrounded by agricultural areas The cities were laid out on a grid Served as hubs for a far-reaching trade network which could have gone as far as Mesopotamia trading:

Jade Ivory Silk Bronze Weapons Writing developed under the Shang and facilitated administration even though only a small number of the elite had time to master this skill The Zhou 1027 BCE the last Shang king was defeated by the Zhou They established the longest-lasting dynasty in

Chinese history The introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven This was the key to the dynastic cycle that would last nearly 3000 years To justify the overthrow of the Shang king, Zhou rulers claimed that the new ruler had been chosen by Heaven and should be seen as the Son of Heaven As long as the king was a moral servant of the people, he would retain the Mandate of Heaven and China would prosper If the king became corrupt, then he would lose the Mandate of Heaven and this would justify a replacement Since the end of the Shang was marked by corruption, violence, greed and arrogance the Zhou reasoning for overthrow was justified

Beginning of Warring States The Zhou dynasty retained many of the traditions and rituals of the Shang and was similarly decentralized The dynasty was divided into 100+ territories each ruled by allies or relations of the king Government officials were expected to rule in a fair and moral fashion This system worked will for a time, but around 800 BCE territories began to compete with one another for power until 480 BCE, when China entered the 200 year period known as The Warring States Period Many states rulers imposed an authoritarian system known as Legalism to keep their subjects under control and promote the state above the individual

Legalism was based on the view that because human nature is evil, order is maintained with laws and punishment Confucianism Though his influence would not be felt until after his death, Confucius 551-479 BCE established his teachings based on the culture and practices of the Zhou dynasty He drew parallels between the family and state, with the king serving as a father figure to his people and ruling with their interests at heart. Coincidentally, social structure of the later Zhou period moved from the clan-based system to the smaller family model that included grandparents, parents and children Confucianism would eventually become the philosophy that future dynasties embraced as a means to establish clear social structure

Taoism Another philosopher was also inspired during the Warring States Period Laozi or Lao Tzu Taoism or the way was to be an alternative to the authoritarian nature of Legalism and the rigid hierarchy of Confucianism Taoism promoted an end to conflict by teaching people to follow the path (tao) and to accept the world instead of seeking to change it

Social Structure & Gender Roles Through both the Shang and Zhou dynasties, Chinas patriarchal nature resembles that of many other early civilizations The father was the head of the family Women were expected to tend to the household Marriage was often an economic and political tool to promote power among elite families Any land the family owned belonged to the father and was divided among his sons upon his death Rise of Shi

Huangdi & the Qin The end of the Warring States Period came in the 3rd Century BCE when the Qin, led by Shi Huangdi, defeated their rivals and created Chinas 1st empire The Qin was a totalitarian regime that promoted Legalism and enacted laws to prevent the rise of a rival power that might challenge Shi Huangdis authority Examples: Upon the death of an owner, land was divided among several heirs Slavery was abolished to create a free labor force that would pay taxes and provide labor and military service Shi Huangdi standardized coinage and laws He built thousands of miles of roads, canals and walls to secure China

Upon Shi Huangdis death people rose up against the oppressive rule Han Dynasty The rebellion upon the death of Shi Huangdi finally ended with the establishment of the Han dynasty Han dynasty (206 BCE 220 CE) is the classical period in Chinese history Its cultural and political characteristics greatly influenced all subsequent dynasties Centered on the river valleys in the eastern portion of the country This fertile region produced crops that supported the population and was the basis of the tax system To build up the infrastructure, the government

required able-bodied men to donate 1 months worth of labor each year for the construction of palaces, temples, and roads They were also required to donate 2 years of military service Han Dynasty With the expansion of the Han, Chinese culture and social structure spread The tenets of Confucianism established a clear hierarchy in which individuals saw themselves as having a particular role in the family and society Fathers were the head of the family A woman was to submit to her parents while she was young, her husband while married and her son if widowed The emperor was the Son of Heaven who was to rule in a paternal fashion so as to retain the Mandate of Heaven

Throughout the empire, peasants, soldiers, and administrators had their own particular role under the rule of the emperor & they followed his word as law Han Government To administer the vast empire, Han emperors relied on local leaders to collect taxes, organize labor, & defend the empire To get prestigious government positions, young men attended universities located around the country Theoretically, this was a meritocracy that provided an opportunity for anyone to rise through the hierarchy, In reality it was the sons of the wealthy and privileged classes who had the time and resources to study the

Confucian classics and attend the universities In part because of this, a large number of peasants turned to Taoism which questioned the hierarchy, rules, and rituals of Confucianism that kept most peasants on the bottom rung of the social ladder Han Advancements Han dynasty achieved many advances in technology that sustained the empire and eventually reached Europe The crossbow and the use of cavalry helped the Han withstand challenges from nomadic people of Central Asia. Military forces, people, and goods traveled the extensive road system begun under the Qin and expanded by Han rulers The watermill harnessed the power of running water to turn a grindstone

The Han developed a horse collar that improved the use of animals in agriculture These developments, along with paper, eventually made their way to Europe and the Middle East. Chinas most valuable innovation was the production of silk Silk was in high demand elsewhere in the world, and China maintained a monopoly on its production for centuries Downfall of the Han Unable to maintain a large empire over vast territories, the Han dynasty ended in 220 CE: The cost of maintaining a military presence on the frontier Coupled with corruption within the government

Peasant rebellions The rise of regional warlords Returned China to a period of political, economic, and cultural fragmentation that lasted until the Sui unification of the late 6th Century CE. Dynasty Video /user/historyteachers#p/ search/0/NIC4zom3w0g South Asia The diversity and culture of the Indian subcontinent developed because of its geographic isolation from the rest of Asia, as well as a combination of political forces

The Himalayas act as a barrier between India and the rest of Asia to the north The Indian Ocean is a barrier to outside influence on the other 3 sides Access is really only available by passing over the Hindu Kush Mountains and traversing the Thar Desert Despite its diversity and relative isolation, the region would achieve cultural and economic influence throughout Asia Indus River Valley Shortly after Mesopotamia and Egypt developed

civilization, the Indus River Valley became the next settled civilization Limited archeological excavation of the majority of Indus sites due to the high water table leaves much knowledge of the Indus unknown Two sites have been excavated: Harappa Mohenjo-Daro What we have been able to determine from these sites: Extensive urban planning Strong central authority ruled High level of knowledge and skills of population:

Plumbing Irrigation Potters Wheel Metalworking Mahabharata Video: ryteachers#p/search/0/xKn7-xXyLp Y Vedic Age Approximately 1900 BCE the cities were abandoned perhaps because of: Political, Economic, and social failures brought on by

natural disasters such as earthquake or flood They were replaced with smaller patriarchal villages that relied on herds of animals and limited farming Around 1500 BCE nomadic warriors from the northwest migrated to India These warriors were the Aryas or Aryans and their religious texts were the Vedas, hence the reason this age is referred to as the Vedic Age They were lighter skinned and spoke Indo-European languages After 1000 BCE the Aryas competed with the darkerskinned Dasas who spoke Dravidian languages The Dasas were pushed south and VARNAS, skin color, became the basis for making sharp social divisions known as Castes

Castes Not mentioned in the Vedas Rules of the Caste Your caste was established at birth Castes determined occupation, marriage and association. Endogamy was practiced this is marriage within ones social category People from different castes did not intermingle if it could be avoided. Intermarriage was not permitted and working to move up in class did not occur. Those that did not comply with the society rules

were severely punished, deemed as a shame upon the whole family and in very severe circumstances were ejected from their caste to make their lot among the Dalit. Escape from this was through reincarnation in the next life if you had built up enough good karma Because of Varnas and belief in reincarnation the caste system became an ingrained part of Indian society Jainism Founder Mahavira The Great Hero Everything has a soul and therefore should not be harmed Complete Nonviolence

Belief in Asceticism complete renunciation of personal needs and possessions This concept was in competitions with the Vedic religion and its tenants Buddhism More competition for the Vedic Religion was Buddhism Rejected the Caste system Founder Siddhartha Gautama: An Indian prince who sought enlightenment. Through a 49 day

meditation he achieved understanding and became the Buddha Four Noble Truths of Buddhism 1. Life is filled with suffering and sorrow 2. The cause of suffering is peoples selfish desires and the temporary pleasures of this world 3. The way to end all suffering is to end all desires 4. The way to overcome desires is via the 8-fold path The 8 Fold Path

Buddhism Evolves Buddhism was more popular than Jainism and gained in influence throughout Asia as it was carried on the trade routes to the rest of Asia The religion did evolve as it spread and there were two main groups of followers: Competition formalizes Hinduism Due to the competition of Buddhism and Jainism, the Vedic Religion evolves into what is known today as Hinduism Hinduism still retains the caste system but the Brahmin caste is not the only class that can have access to interaction with the gods Hinduism emphasized that individuals should have a personal relationship with one god which would be a

manifestation of the same universal force Adopting many aspects of Buddhism to build off of its popularity, Hinduism was able to push Buddhism out of its land of origin India The only exception to this was the brief resurgence during the reign of Asoka during the Mauryan Empire Disconnected India The diversity, geography, and social structure of the subcontinent made political unification rare in its early history Language & customs differed across India, as did the organization and economic nature of each region A stronger deterrent to political unity was the complicated social hierarchy and its promotion of

caste identification over loyalty to a centralized political power In spite these factors promoting decentralization, the Mauryan and Gupta Empires emerged and helped create a unified civilization in India Mauryan Empire In 324 BCE the Mauryan Empire rose out of a landscape of competing kinship groups and independent states of agricultural production was paid to the king who also controlled mines, issued coinage and oversaw a large and powerful army The king also appointed relatives and allies in each district to tend to

administrative affairs Mauryan Contributions and Collapse Mauryan King Asoka , the founders grandson After a brutal military campaign across most of the subcontinent he was able to extend the borders of the empire He converted to Buddhism and began preaching nonviolence and tolerance He inscribed his moral codes in large pillars throughout the empire During Mauryan reign there was road construction and development of towns which

increased the presence in land and sea trade networks that connected East and Southeast Asia with the Middle East and Europe which continued even after the Mauryan Empire was attacked by outsiders and fell in 184 BCE Gupta Empire After about 500 years of political rivalry and upheaval, the Gupta Empire came to power in much the same way the Mauryan Empire had Gupta leaders controlled both agriculture and mining They required that their subjects donate labor to construction projects However the Gupta Empire was not as centralized as the Mauryan Empire A strong army helped the Gupta retain control but as distance from the center increased so too did the autonomy

of the local leaders Gupta kings were able to increase loyalty amongst the more autonomous by offering them incentives for their allegiance The Gupta Empire collapsed in 550 CE when it was attacked by the Huns of Central Asia Advances under the Gupta Influential role in regional trade Interest in the arts and sciences increased Mathematicians invented the concept of zero and developed Arabic numerals that are used in much of the world today

Role of Women The role of women changed as the economy of South Asia developed Increased trade created an urban middle class that valued property and undermined womens rights to own or inherit it Opportunities for influence outside of the home were limited and women in India, like their counterparts in China under Confucianism, were expected to obey their fathers, husbands and sons In parts of India (more rural) women were expected to commit sati This meant throwing herself on the funeral pyre of her husband or else be shunned by the community (many were helped onto the fire or were forced into prostitution) Buddhism and Jainism did provide women with some freedom from male domination in the Hindu empire

Upper-class women had access to education and enjoyed more freedom than the poor Southeast Asia Including Indochina, Malaysia, and the many islands extending out into the Pacific Ocean Vast amounts of fertile land a climate that enables multiple growing seasons promoted population growth and produced plants and animals that would eventually be exported to other regions Wet rice Soybeans Sugarcane Chickens Pigs Periodic disruptions of overland trade across Asia increased

the role and power of Southeast Asia as sea trade expanded Trade routes also brought Buddhism to the area as Indian missionaries and East Asian pilgrims passed through on their way to and from India

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