# Artificial Intelligence

Computation Binary Numbers Decimal numbers Binary numbers http://faculty.mc3.edu/pvetere/Applets/APPLETS/NUMSYS/applet_frame.htm Text Computers have revolutionized our world. They have

changed the course of our daily lives, the way we do science, the way we entertain ourselves, the way that business is conducted, and the way we protect our security. Text Computers have revolutionized our world. They have changed the course of our daily lives, the way we do science, the way we entertain ourselves, the way that business is conducted, and the way we protect our

security. Les ordinateurs ont rvolutionn notre monde. Ils ont chang le cours de notre vie quotidienne, notre faon de faire la science, la faon dont nous nous divertissons, la faon dont les affaires sont menes, et la faon dont nous protgeons notre scurit. Text Computers have revolutionized our world. They have changed the course of our daily lives, the way we do

science, the way we entertain ourselves, the way that business is conducted, and the way we protect our security. Les ordinateurs ont rvolutionn notre monde. Ils ont chang le cours de notre vie quotidienne, notre faon de faire la science, la faon dont nous nous divertissons, la faon dont les affaires sont menes, et la faon dont nous protgeons notre scurit.

Representing Text Decide how many characters we need to represent. Determine the required number of bits. Ascii: 7 bits. Can encode 27 = 128 different symbols. Ascii http://www.krisl.net/cgi-bin/ascbin.pl

Representing Text F o u r

01000110 01101111 01110101 01110010 Representing Text T h e n u m b e r i s 1 7 .

54 68 65 20 6E 75 6D 62 65 72 20 69 73 20 31 37 2E When We Need More Characters What about things like: When We Need More Characters What about things like:

Answer: Unicode: 32 bits. Over 4 million characters. http://www.unicode.org/charts/ A conversion applet: http://www.pinyin.info/tools/converter/chars2uninumbers.html But What Do Symbols Look Like? Computers have revolutionized our world.

Computers have revolutionized our world. Computers have revolutionized our world. Computers have revolutionized our world. Computers have revolutionized our world. The Basic Idea results = google(text, query)

The Basic Idea results = google(text, query) if word_count(text) > 5000: return(Done!!) else: return(No sleep yet.) The Basic Idea

results = google(text, query) if word_count(text) > 5000: return(Done!!) else: return(No sleep yet. display = render(text, font) The Basic Idea

Computers have revolutionized our world. Digital Images Pixels Pixels Now we must turn this 2-dimensional bit matrix into a string of bits.

Pixels 0000110000 0001111000 0011111100 0111111110 0111111110 0111111110 0111001110 0111001110 0111001110 0111001110 Digital Images Two Color Models

RGB The red channel RGB The green channel RGB

Red Green Blue Experimenting with RGB http://www.jgiesen.de/ColorTheory/RGBColorApplet/rgbcolorapplet.html

Representing Sounds Digitizing Sound Representing Programs public static TreeMap create() throws IOException public static TreeMap create() throws IOException { Integer freq; String word;

TreeMap result = new TreeMap(); JFileChooser c = new JFileChooser(); int retval = c.showOpenDialog(null); if (retval == JFileChooser.APPROVE_OPTION) { Scanner s = new Scanner( c.getSelectedFile()); while( s.hasNext() ) { word = s.next().toLowerCase(); freq = result.get(word); result.put(word, (freq == null ? 1 : freq + 1));

} } return result; } } Chess Boards Forsythe-Edwards Notation rnbqkbnr/pppppppp/8/8/8/8/PPPPPPPP/RNBQKBNR w KQkq - 0 1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forsyth-Edwards_Notation Molecules Its just a string: AUGACGGAGCUUCGGAGCUAG The Roots of Modern Technology 1834

Charles Babbages Analytical Engine Ada writes of the engine, The Analytical Engine has no pretensions whatever to originate anything. It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform.

The picture is of a model built in the late 1800s by Babbages son from Babbages drawings. Using Logic TaiShanHasTail

SmokyHasTail PuffyHasTail ChumpyHasTail

SnowflakeHasTail Using Logic Panda(TaiShan).

Bear(Smoky). x (Panda(x) Bear(x). x (Bear(x) HasPart(x, Tail)).

x (Bear(x) Animal(x)). x (Animal(x) Bear(x)).

x (Animal(x) y (Mother-of(y, x))). x ((Animal(x) Dead(x)) Alive(x)). Does TaiShan have a tail? Search

Start state Goal state http://www.javaonthebrain.com/java/puzz15/ What is a Heuristic? What is a

Heuristic? The word heuristic comes from the Greek word (heuriskein)), meaning to discover, which is also the origin of eureka, derived from Archimedes reputed exclamation, heurika (I have found), uttered when he had discovered that the volume of

water displaced in the bath equals the volume of whatever (him) got put in the water. This could be used as a method for determining the purity of gold. What is a Heuristic? The word heuristic comes from the Greek word

(heuriskein)), meaning to discover, which is also the origin of eureka, derived from Archimedes reputed exclamation, heurika (I have found), uttered when he had discovered that the volume of water displaced in the bath equals the volume of whatever (him) got put in the water. This could be

used as a method for determining the purity of gold. A heuristic is a rule that helps us find something. An Aside on Checking Facts on the Web Who invented the 15-puzzle? Sam Loyd did: (http://www.jimloy.com/puzz/15.htm )

Did he or didnt he: (http://www.archimedes-lab.org/game_slide15/slide15_puzzle.html ) No he didnt: (http://www.cut-the-knot.org/pythagoras/fifteen.shtml ) Breadth-First Search Is this a good idea?

Depth-First Search More Interesting Problems The 20 legal initial moves Scalability Solving hard problems requires search in a large space.

To play master-level chess requires searching about 8 ply deep. So about 358 or 21012 nodes must be examined. Growth Rates of Functions Scalability

To play one master-level game 21012 nodes Seconds since Big Bang 3 1017

Number of sequential games 150,000 since Big Bang Yet This Exists How? A Heuristic Function for Chess c1 c2

c3 c4 * * * * material + mobility +

king safety + center control + ... Computing material: Pawn Knight Bishop Rook Queen King

100 320 325 500 975 32767 The Advent of the Computer 1945 ENIAC The first electronic digital computer

1948 Modified to be a stored program machine 1949 EDVAC Possibly the first stored program computer Moores Law http://www.intel.com/technology/mooreslaw/

How It Has Happened Can This Trend Continue? http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/31/science/31compute.html?_r=1 How Much Compute Power Might It Take? http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~hpm/book97/ch3/index.html

How Much Compute Power is There? Hans Moravec: http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~hpm/talks/revo.slides/power.aug.curve/power.aug.gif How Much Compute Power Is There? Kurweils Vision http://www.pocket-lint.co.uk/news/news.phtml/12920/13944/Computersmatch-humans-by-2030.phtml

Some Other People Agree http://www.networkworld.com/news/2009/092109-intel-cto-interview.html Countdown to Singularity Law of Accelerating Returns Limits to What We Can Compute

Are there fundamentally uncomputable things? Does God exist? Whats the best way to run a country? Does this puzzle have a solution? What Can We Do? 1. Can we make all true statements theorems?

2. Can we decide whether a statement is a theorem? The Halting Problem Program, M input string, w Does M halt on w? Yes

No A Simple Example read name if name = Elaine then print You win!! else print You lose

Another Example read number set result to 1 set counter to 2 until counter > number do set result to result * counter add 1 to counter print result Programs Debug Programs

Given an arbitrary program, can it be guaranteed to halt? read number set result to 1 set counter to 2 until counter > number do set result to result * counter add 1 to counter Suppose number = 5: print result result

number counter 1 5 2 2 5 3 6 5 4

24 5 5 120 5 6 Changing It a Bit Given an arbitrary program, can it be guaranteed to halt? read number

set result to 1 set counter to 2 until counter > number do set number to number * counter add 1 to counter Suppose number = 5: print result result number counter 1

5 2 1 10 3 1 30 4 1 120

5 1 600 6 How About this One? Does this program halt on all inputs? times3(x: positive integer) = While x 1 do: If x is even then x = x/2.

Else x = 3x + 1. Lets try it. The Halting Problem Is Undecidable Program, M input string, w Does M halt on w? Yes

No Another Undecidable Problem The Post Correspondence Problem A PCP Instance With a Simple Solution i X

Y 1 b aab 2

abb b 3 aba a

4 baaa baba A PCP Instance With a Simple Solution i

X Y 1 b aab

2 abb b 3 aba

a 4 baaa baba Solution: 3, 4, 1

Another PCP Instance i X Y 1 11

011 2 01 0 3

001 110 Another PCP Instance i X

Y 1 11 011 2

01 0 3 001 110

The Post Correspondence Problem List 1 List 2 1 ba bab

2 abb bb 3 bab

abb A PCP Instance With No Simple Solution i X Y

1 1101 1 2 0110

11 3 1 110 A PCP Instance With No Simple Solution i

X Y 1 1101 1

2 0110 11 3 1

110 Shortest solution has length 252. Can A Program Do This? Can we write a program to answer the following question: Given a PCP instance P, decide whether or not P has a solution. Return:

True if it does. False if it does not. What is a Program? What is a Program? A procedure that can be performed by a computer. The Post Correspondence Problem A program to solve this problem:

Until a solution or a dead end is found do: If dead end, halt and report no. Generate the next candidate solution. Test it. If it is a solution, halt and report yes. So, if there are say 4 rows in the table, well try: 1 2 3

4 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4

2,1 1,1,1 . 1,5 Will This Work? If there is a solution: If there is no solution:

A Tiling Problem A Tiling Problem A Tiling Problem A Tiling Problem A Tiling Problem

A Tiling Problem A Tiling Problem A Tiling Problem A Tiling Problem A Tiling Problem

Try This One Another Tiling Problem Another Tiling Problem Is the Tiling Problem Decidable? Wangs conjecture: If a given set of tiles can be used to tile an

arbitrary surface, then it can always do so periodically. In other words, there must exist a finite area that can be tiled and then repeated infinitely often to cover any desired surface. But Wangs conjecture is false. Important Issues The halting problem is undecidable. Theres no black box reasoning engine for standard logic. Would quantum computing change the picture? Does undecidability doom our attempt to make artificial

copies of ourselves? Is Decidability Enough? The Traveling Salesman Problem 15 10 20 4

25 28 8 40 9

7 3 23 Given n cities and the distances between each pair of them, find the shortest tour that returns to its starting point and visits each other city exactly once along the way.

The Traveling Salesman Problem 15 10 20 4 25 28

8 40 9 7 3

23 Given n cities: Choose a first city Choose a second Choose a third n n-1

n-2 n! The Traveling Salesman Problem Can we do better than n! First city doesnt matter. Order doesnt matter. So we get (n-1!)/2.

The Growth Rate of n! 2 2 11 479001600

3 6 12 6227020800 4

24 13 87178291200 5 120

14 1307674368000 6 720 15

20922789888000 7 5040 16 355687428096000

8 40320 17 6402373705728000 9

362880 18 121645100408832000 10 3628800

19 2432902008176640000 11 39916800 36

3.61041 Growth Rates of Functions, Again Putting it into Perspective Speed of light Width of a proton 3108 m/sec 10-15 m

At one operation in the 31023 ops/sec time it takes light to cross a proton Since Big Bang Ops since Big Bang 31017 sec 91040 ops

36! = 3.61041 Neurons in brain Parallel ops since Big Bang 1011 91051 43! = 61052

Does Complexity Doom AI?

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