Reduces freezing temperature and strength. Incomplete freezing. 3.4 Special Considerations Temperature monitoring Thermocouples in key locations. Soil heave and creep. Monitor closely be aware of adjacent structures.
4.0 Advantages Soil applicability and versatility Various improvement geometries
Angled freeze pipes Cost-effective
All soil and site conditions Freeze pipe geometry for cross passage construction, Nanjing Metro, China Replaces multiple methods
Ground returns to original state Dayong, Hui (2010) 4.0 Disadvantages Energy intensive Extensive monitoring Possible failures
Uncontrolled frozen ground thickness Damage to AGF equipment, causing leaks Damage to nearby structures 5.0 Case Study Dijk, P. and Bouwmeester-van den Bos, J. (2001)
6.0 Current Conditions Ground freezing is becoming increasingly more common for everyday shoring projects Currently competitive on a cost-basis Typical cost approximately $30 $60 per square foot of frozen soil wall area (SoilFreeze, Inc.) 7.0 Conclusions
Freeze soil pore water with coolant circulation through pipes to: Control groundwater or contaminant mobility Increase strength and stiffness Versatile and technique for ground
improvement Applicable to entire soil range Applicable to various site stratigraphy and conditions Proper site characterization is key
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