Invertebrates Invertebrate- have no backbone Sponges and stinging animals: Sponges belong to the phylum Porifera Classified by the way they eat- Porifera- filter feeders Stinging animals- belong the phylum- Cnidaria Have nematocyst- a tiny stinging organelle Jellyfish, sea anemone, coral
Invertebrate Mollusks- soft bodies and mantles, and sometimes grow shells Some are bivalves- have 2 shells Clams, mussels, oysters Gastropod- stomach foot Snails Nudibranchs- slugs
Celphalopod- head footed Squid, octopus, cuddlefish Invertebrates Echinoderm- spiny skin- is used as defense Starfish, sea urchins, sea stars
Filter feeders Radial symmetry Tubed feet Some can regenerate Invertebrates Flat worms- bilateral symmetry Some are parasites- live off and harm another organism (a host)
Some are free living Roundworms- smooth and round Not all are parasites Live in soil, water, dead plants Invertebrates Segmented worms- have segments-similar pieces Each segment has some of the same things
Because of this they are able to regenerate They are called Annelids some are parasites but do not live in their host (they live on their host) i.e. leeches some live in the sea, some live on land Invertebrates
Arthropods: jointed foot Crustaceans: Has at least 5 pairs of jointed legs and 2 pairs of antennae Breath with gills Have some sort of claw Crab, shrimp, lobster Invertebrates Arachnids:
Have eight legs and 2 body segments Most are not harmful, few are dangerous to humans Spiders, scorpions, ticks and mites Invertebrates Centipedes and millipedes Have many body segments, exact number depends on creature Centipedes have 1 pair of legs per segment
centi- means 100, but centipedes have anywhere from 30-274 legs Front pair of legs have poisonous fangs Millipedes have 2 pairs of legs on each segment milli- means 1000, but they do not have 1000 legs Have no poisonous fangs but give off nasty smells Insects 90% of all arthropods are insects
They have 3 body segments Head, abdomen, and thorax Most have 2 pairs of wings They have different mouth parts Beetles- have chewing mouthparts Mosquitoes have piercing mouthparts Butterflies have siphoning mouthparts Insects
Metamorphosis There are 2 types of Metamorphosis Incomplete metamorphosis 3 stages Egg Nymph- an immature insect, looks like adult but wings not functional Adult- after a nymph molts several times the wings become functional and the nymph becomes an adult
Incomplete Metamorphosis Insects Metamorphosis Complete Metamorphosis Has 4 stages Egg Larva- does not look like adult, the insect consumes much, ex. caterpillar Pupa- transitional stage, may be covered with chrysalis
or cocoon, insect does not eat in this stage Adult- the female insect can now lay eggs and begin the cycle again, ex. butterfly Complete Metamorphosis Vertebrates Vertebrates have a backbone Fish Are cold-blooded
Cartilage fish- sharks, skates and rays Bony fish- most fish, (salmon, bass, etc) Vertebrates Amphibians- double life Live life on land Live in water Are cold-blooded Have a life cycle Egg- are laid in water
Larval stage adult Reptiles Have similar characteristics to amphibians, but they do not have gills during their life They are cold-blooded They lay eggs (but only on land, not in water) They have scaly skin or leathery skin
Main groups Turtles Lizards Snakes Turtles Have a unique skeletal structure Back bones are fused to shell Many are omnivores
Some are herbivores Tortoises are land dwellers, with high domed shells Some are called terrapins Turtles can live on land or water Lizards and Snakes They are cold-blooded Few are poisonous, most are harmless
Lizards can be carnivorous or herbivores They live everywhere in the world All snakes are carnivores They cannot tear or chew food They swallow their meal whole The jaws of a snake are not tightly attached and because of this they can dislocate their jaw allowing it to open quite wide Crocodilians
Crocodiles, alligators and camans They are reptiles- and thus cold-blooded They are carnivorous- fierce predators They have scaly skin, large bodies and short legs
Crocs have v shaped snouts Gators have u shaped snouts Birds Birds are warm-blooded Have wings and most can fly Kiwi, emu, ostrich and penguins and cannot fly Lay eggs Have feathers
Some are herbivores and some carnivores The beak shape can tell you what they eat Mammals
Are warm-blooded Have hair Produce milk for their young Give birth to live offspring Have 3 ear bones Breathe air through lungs Mammals Monotremes- they lay eggs
Echidna and platypus Marsupials- they have pouches out side of the body to allow the underdeveloped offspring to continue to grow big enough to function Kangaroo, koala, wallaby Mammals Rodents, rabbits, and moles- have 2 large front teeth that do not stop growing
Moles are insectivores, they eat insects Bats- they fly They are nocturnal- come out at night Use echolocation to move around and find food A technique that uses high pitch frequencies to bounce off a surface to detect distance Mammals Hoofed mammals
Odd hoofed- odd number of toes Horses, zebra, burro, mule Even hoofed- even number of toes Cow, sheep, goat, deer Carnivores- meat eating mammals Cats-have retractable claws- that means when the claws are not in use they go back into the paw Lions live in prides
Dogs- live in packs Pinnipeds- these are mammals with a swimming foot Sea lion, walrus, and seal Mainly eat fish but will eat mollusks, crustaceans, and even penguins Mammals Marine mammals- live in the ocean Some have blubber to keep warm in cold water Can hold breath for long time
Some use echolocation Whales swim in pods (a group of whales) Mammals Primates- 2 groups Lemurs Monkeys 2 groups New world- have broad noses and most have tails that they can use like an arm Old world- baboons, and monkeys without tails (apes, gorillas,
and chimpanzees Mammals Humans- we are unique from all other animals in that God make man in His image and gave us a soul
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