Aquatic Ecosystems

Aquatic Ecosystems

Aquatic Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems

75% of earths surface covered with water Oceans, streams, lakes, marshes, rivers Biotic and Abiotic factors

Aquatic Ecosystems determined by a variety of factors Aquatic Ecosystems Depth

Aquatic Ecosystems Flow Aquatic Ecosystems

Temperature Aquatic Ecosystems Chemistry

Freshwater 3% of earths surface water Two Main Types: Flowing water ecosystems Standing water ecosystems

Flowing Water Ecosystems River, Stream, Creek, Brook Adaptations: Insect larvae with hooks

Catfish with suckers Stream lined bodies Flowing Water Ecosystems

Typically originate in mountain or hills

Often spring from underground source Little plant life near source Sediments allow for plant life down stream Turtles, beavers, otters in slower moving water further down stream

Standing Water Ecosystems Lakes and Ponds Water typically circulates throughout (helps distribute heat, oxygen, nutrients)

Plankton (can often live in fresh or salt H2O) Phytoplankton: base of many aquatic food webs (can be single cell algae) Zooplankton: feed on phytoplankton

Wetlands Wetland: waters covers soil or water at/near surface for part of the year Can be flowing, standing, fresh, salty, brackish

Wetlands Bogs Usually form in depressions made from melted ice sheets (thousands of years prior)

Water is usually acidic Sphagnum moss (thick mats grow here) Wetlands Marshes: can be underwater all/part of the year Cattails and other tall, grasslike plants

Wetlands Swamps: often look like flooded forests Water flows slowly through swams Presence of trees/shrubs distinguishes from

marsh Estuaries

Wetlands formed where river & sea meet Mixture of salt & fresh water (affected by tides)

Many are shallow (tf photosynthesis possible) Primary producers = plants, algae, bacteria (both photosynthetic & chemosynthetic) Most organic material becomes detritus (majority of estuarys primary production)

Clams, worms, sponges feed on detritus Estuary Huge amount of biomass (but usually fewer species than fresh/salt environments)

Estuary Clams, worms, sponges feed on detritus Estuaries

Often a spawning ground for many fishes & shrimp & crabs Many waterfowl use them for nesting, feeding, resting Salt Marshes

Temperate zone estuaries with salt tolerant grasses (above and below tide line) Mangrove Swamp Coastal wetlands (FL & HI) with abundance of

salt tolerant trees (mangroves) & sea grasses Everglades National Park Marine Ecosystems Photic Zone: 200 m

Algae & Producers Marine Ecosystems Aphotic zone: permanently dark Chemosynthetic autotrophs

Based on depth & distance from shore: Intertidal zone Coastal ocean Open ocean

Intertidal Zone High tide/Low tide Coastal Ocean

Low tideouter edge of the continental shelf The Drop Off The Drop Off

Coral Reefs Coastal, tropical oceans Wide diversity of organisms Cannot grow in cold water or fresh water

Live symbiotically w algae (tf w/in 40 m dt sunlight)

Open Ocean Aka Oceanic Zone Edge of continental shelf outward >90% of surface area of oceans 500m >11,000m

Deep ocean: high P, frigid, complete darkness Low levels of nutrients Benthic Zone Benthos = organisms that live attached or

near the bottom of the ocean Benthic Zone Everything except areas near the coast and

the sea floor is called the pelagic zone. Benthos Benthos Usually feed on detritus

that drifts down from surface Aquatic Food Web

Aquatic Food Web/Food Chain Aquatic Food Web

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