Apply the Principles of War During Mission Planning

Apply the Principles of War During Mission Planning

Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis Methodology With Kasserine Pass Battle Analysis 1 Move your command, i.e. the walking boys, pop guns, Bakers outfit and the big fellow to M, which is due north of where you are now, as soon as possible. Have your boss report to a French gentleman, whose name begins with a J, at a place which begins with D, which is five grid squares to the left of M. MG Lloyd Fredendall US II Corp Commander 1943 2 Basic Battle Analysis What is Battle Analysis? A method used by the U.S. Army to provide a systematic approach to the study of battles, campaigns, and other operations.

3 Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis Steps Step 1: Define the Subject. Step 2: Review the Setting (Set the Stage). Step 3: Describe the Action. Step 4: Assess the Significance. 4 Basic Battle Analysis Step 1 -- Define the Subject Identify Event (Where, Who, When) Determine Research Material Evaluate Material 5 Basic Battle Analysis Step 1--Define the Subject Identify Event (where, who,

when) Pick a subject appropriate to the level of interest. Select a topic related to the types of lessons desired. 6 Kasserine Pass Step 1--Define the Subject Identify Event (where, who, when) Kasserine Pass (Sidi-Bou-Zid) Leadership Lessons/Insights Combined Arms Example Changes in Doctrine Elements of US 1st Armored Division vs. German 10th and 21st Panzer Divisions 14 & 15 Feb 1943 7 Basic Battle Analysis Step 1--Define the Subject Determine & Evaluate Research Material

Quantity and type of sources (books, articles, and other). Quality of sources (content, bias, and intent). 8 Kasserine Pass Step 1--Define the Subject Determine & Evaluate Research Material Books Kasserine Pass Martin Blumenson Plus Chapter 8 First Battles Official History of the US Army in World War II Green Books Articles Armor Magazine Sidi Bou Zid-A Case History of Failure Other Center of Military History Staff Ride Primary Sources on the WEB 9 Basic Battle Analysis

Step 2 Review the Setting (Set the Stage) A. B. C. D. Strategic/Operational Overview Study Area of Operations Compare Antagonists State Missions & Initial Disposition of Opposing Forces. 10 Basic Battle Analysis Step 2--Set the Stage Part A: Strategic/Operational Overview Identify the War Objective of principle Antagonists Campaign Overview 11 Kasserine Pass Step 2--Set the Stage

Part A: Strategic/Operational Overview World War II : 1939 1945 Mediterranean Theater Objectives: Allies Invasion of North-West Africa Creation of a Second Allied Front Relief for Soviet Union Control of the Suez Canal & Mediterranean Shipping Lane Attack weaker Axis Forces Axis Control of North Africa to prevent Allied Goals and protect Italy/European holdings. 12 Operational Overview xxxx PAA xxxx EIGHTH 13 Operational Overview B C

A x x x 1 1 1 xxxx PAA 14 Basic Battle Analysis Step 2--Set the Stage Part B: Area of Operations Weather Terrain OAKOC 15 Kasserine Pass B

x C A 1 x x WEATHER & TERRAIN 1 1 ***1st AD Disposition prior to German Offensive 16 Djebel Lassouda Djebel Hamra Poste de Lessouda Sadaguia Sidi Salam

Faid Sidi Bou Zid Zaafria El Fekka Bir el Hafa R. Ain Rebaou Garet Hadid Djebel Ksaira Bir el Hafa Terrain of Faid Pass & Sidi Bou Zid Area Maizila Pass 17 Basic Battle Analysis

Step 2--Set the Stage Part C: Compare Forces Size & composition Technology Intelligence Doctrine & Training Logistics Condition & Morale Leadership C3 18 15 Feb 1943 CC C 2 3

1 Size & Composition 14 Feb 1943 Div Reserve 1 6 1 13 DJ Lassouda 17 M4s 10 M4s CC A Reserve

1 40 M4s KG Reimann 86 2 10 Tigers/10 Pzr IIIs 21st PANZER DIVISION 91(-) KG Schuette A/701 (-) 2 8 M3s 17 104

B/701 12 M3s 69 22 Pz IV 66 Pz III 4 M3s CC A LTC Hightower 13 7 2 1 168 2 3 (-)

G KG Gerhardt C/701 50 M4s 6 10TH PANZER DIVISION Garet Hadid 168 DJ Ksaira 3 10 Pz IV 20 Pz III KG Stenkhoff 168 5 2

1 ** Not Complete Task Organizations 20 Pz IV 40 Pz III 5 104 19 Basic Battle Analysis Step 2--Set the Stage Part C: Compare Forces Size & composition Technology Doctrine & Training Logistics Intelligence Condition & Morale

C3 Leadership 20 Technology Kasserine Pass PzKpfw III J M4 Sherman Weight: Gun: Front Armor: Speed: 30 Tons 75 mm 51-76 mm 39 kph 9 Tons 75 mm 6-12 mm 64 kph 22 Tons 50 mm 50 mm 38 kph

PzKpfw IV F2 Weight: Gun: Front Armor: Speed: M3 Weight: Gun: Front Armor: Speed: Weight: Gun: Front Armor: Speed: 25 Tons 75 mm 50 mm 38 kph PzKpfw VI Tiger Weight: Gun: Front Armor: Speed:

57 Tons 88 mm 100 mm 38 kph 21 Maximum Penetration Comparison (In Yrds) 2,600 Front 2,100 M4 5,000 Flank PzKpfw IV 4,600 5,000 Rear 4,200 None

Front M4 Flank 2,800 1,900 5,000 Rear PzKpfw VI Tiger 1,100 5,000 22 Basic Battle Analysis Step 2--Set the Stage Part C: Compare Forces Size & composition Technology Doctrine & Training Logistics

Intelligence Condition & Morale C3 Leadership 23 Doctrine and Training Kasserine Pass Germans Doctrine well defined and soldiers battle hardened after several years of war experience. US Majority of troops still relatively green. Tank Doctrine flawed: Tanks not intended to fight other tanks Cheaper Tank Destroyers were intended to defeat Armor Penetrations General McNair (Commander-Army Ground Forces) Summer 1941: Certainly it is poor economy to use a $35,000 medium tank to destroy another tank when the job can be done by a gun costing a fraction as much. 24

Basic Battle Analysis Step 2--Set the Stage Part C: Compare Forces Size & composition Technology Doctrine & Training Logistics Intelligence Condition & Morale C3 Leadership 25 Logistics Kasserine Pass Allies Strained Long Supply Lines Attempting to re-equip units with M4s French poorly equipped/supplied Required a logistical surge to improve these units Result: No Additional Combat Troops Forward until

Logistic Effort caught up. Axis Supplied from Italy: Short Land supply lines, but challenged in Air and Sea Fuel Prevented long campaign, but sufficient for planned operation. 26 Basic Battle Analysis Step 2--Set the Stage Part C: Compare Forces Size & composition Technology Doctrine & Training Logistics Intelligence Condition & Morale C3 Leadership 27 Intelligence

Kasserine Pass Germans had correctly identified Allies were thinly deployed and struggling with logistics Allied Intelligence failed 1st Army incorrectly identified Germans would attack in the North. Anderson diverted strong Combat Command from 1st AD to back-up weak French XIX Corps. This resulted in weakness in south. 28 Basic Battle Analysis Step 2--Set the Stage Part C: Compare Forces Size & composition Technology Doctrine & Training Logistics Intelligence Condition & Morale C3 Leadership 29

Condition and Morale Kasserine Pass Morale of US troops good during Sidi Bou Zid engagement, but cases of panic increased as the battle progressed. Leadership attempts to correct: Fredendall had hands off leadership style that did little to correct dropping moral MG Harmon, who entered battlefield and took tactical control of II Corps at the end of the battle, used personal courage and example which seemed to improve moral overnight. 30 Basic Battle Analysis Step 2--Set the Stage Part C: Compare Forces Size & composition Technology Doctrine & Training Logistics Intelligence

Condition & Morale C3 Leadership 31 C3 Kasserine Pass Axis Strained Commando Supremo in control of German troops. FM Kesselring considered only an Advisor to Commando Supremo, not in direct control of Panzer Army Afrika or 5th Panzer Army Rommel and Von Arnim considered equals: Therefore, no supreme commander on ground during campaign. Violation of Unity of Command II Corps Dysfunctional Corp Commander Bypasses COC Extremely Directive Orders 32 C3 Kasserine Pass Corps Order:

DJ Ksaira on the South and DJ Lessouda on the North are the key terrain features in the defense of Faid. These two features must be strongly held, with a mobile reserve in the vicinity of Sidi Bou Zid which can rapidly launch a counter attack A Battalion of infantry should be employed for the defense of DJ Ksaira, and the bulk of a battalion of infantry together with a battery of artillery and a company of tanks for the defense of DJ Lessouda 33 Basic Battle Analysis Step 2--Set the Stage Part C: Compare Forces Size & composition Technology Doctrine & Training Logistics Intelligence Condition & Morale C3 Leadership

34 Leadership Kasserine Pass MG Fredendall (II Corps Commander) Hands-off commander. Rarely left Command Post: 60-70 miles from front Underground Bunkers Guarded by Ranger Company. Verbal orders were vague Often Bypassed MG Ward (1 AD Commander) and coordinated directly with combat commanders. Operation Order extremely directive. Not based on personal recon. Disregard of Subordinates 35 Basic Battle Analysis Step 2--Set the Stage Part D: State the Mission & Describe Initial Disposition

Mission of each force Objective of each force Describe Initial Disposition of Forces 36 Kasserine Pass Step 2--Set the Stage Part D: State the Mission U.S. Mission: CCA Defends Faid and Maizila Passes Division Objective: Protect French XIX Corps Southern Flank until 1st Army can resume offensive operations. German Mission: Elements of 5th Panzer Army Attacks Sidi Bou Zid to Destroy enemy forces and prepare for follow-on missions. Army Group Objective: Create a buffer for Rommels western flank. Beyond that, Objective is never fully resolved between the two Army Commanders involved in Kasserine Pass 37 1 Division Reserve at Speitla, 40 Miles away

13 61 US Disposition Djebel Hamra Djebel Lessouda 168 2 Poste de Lessouda Sadaguia Sidi Salam Zaafria El Fekka R. 3 1 91

Faid Sidi Bou Zid 2 Garet Hadid 17 168 Ain Rebaou 3 168 Djebel Ksaira Bir el Hafa 81(-) Maizila Pass 38 German Plan

Djebel Hamra Djebel Lessouda x Poste de Lessouda Sadaguia GERHARDT xSidi Salam x R. STENKHOFF x Faid REIMANN Sidi Bou Zid x

Zaafria El Fekka 10TH PANZER DIVISION GERHARDT x Ain Rebaou REIMANN SCHUETTE Garet Hadid Djebel Ksaira Bir el Hafa 21st PANZER DIVISION x Maizila Pass x

SCHUETTE STENKHOFF 39 Basic Battle Analysis Step 3--Describe the Action Describe opening moves Detail major phases State outcome 40 1 6 14 FEBRUARY Kerns Crossroad Djebel Hamra Djebel Lessouda

168 2 x Poste de Lessouda Sadaguia REIMANN Sidi Salam Zaafria El Fekka R. 3 x Faid 1 91 Sidi Bou Zid 2

GERHARDT 17 168 Ain Rebaou 3 168 Djebel Ksaira Garet Hadid Bir el Hafa x 81(-) x Maizila Pass SCHUETTE STENKHOFF

41 15 FEBRUARY 16 6 3 1 2 Djebel Hamra Djebel Lessouda 168 2 COL Stack Poste de Lessouda x

Sadaguia x Zaafria El Fekka x GERHARDT Faid Sidi Salam Sidi Bou Zid REIMANN x R. Ain Rebaou STENKHOFF SCHUETTE 168 Garet Hadid

3 168 Djebel Ksaira Bir el Hafa Maizila Pass 42 OUTCOME 15 Feb 1943 CC C 2 3 1 1 6 1

13 17 M4s 7 2 1 168 2 10 M4s CC A Reserve 1 40 M4s KG Reimann 86 2

10 Tigers/10 Pzr IIIs 21st PANZER DIVISION 91(-) KG Schuette A/701 (-) 2 8 M3s 17 104 B/701 12 M3s 69 22 Pz IV 66 Pz III

4 M3s CC A LTC Hightower 13 DJ Lassouda 3 (-) G KG Gerhardt C/701 50 M4s 6 10TH PANZER DIVISION 14 Feb 1943 Div Reserve

Garet Hadid 168 DJ Ksaira 3 10 Pz IV 20 Pz III KG Stenkhoff 168 5 2 1 ** Not Complete Task Organizations 20 Pz IV 40 Pz III 5

104 43 44 Basic Battle Analysis Step 4Assess the Significance Cause and Effect Why did events turn out the way they did? Relevance What is relevant about this study to current operations? 45 Basic Battle Analysis Step 4Assess the SignificanceCause & Effect Who won? Who lost? What were the constants that affected the outcome? 46 Basic Battle Analysis

Step 4Assess the SignificanceRelevance/Military Lessons Principles of War Threads Of Continuity Warfighting Functions 47 Doctrine Kasserine Pass US Tank/Tank Destroyer Doctrine US Tank/TD Reality in 1943 14 Feb 15 Feb 48 Intelligence Kasserine Pass Cause/Effect 1st Army IDs Attack will be in North II Corps Weakened

Poor Early Warning G/3 AR Surprised and Destroyed LTC Hightower Overwhelmed Recon consists of Clear up the Situation LTC Alger Sent into Ambush Insight Violation of Principle of War: Security 49 COMPARISON OF MAIN DIRECT FIRE WEAPONS SYSTEMS 14 Feb 43 LTC Hightower DJ Lassouda KG Gerhardt 3 Companies M4 Shermans 1 Company M3 Tank Destroyer Half Tracks Pzr IV Co Similar to M4

Various AT Units 3 Pzr III Cos Inferior to M4 KG Riemann Tiger Co w/ spt Pzr IIIs Superior to M4 Numbers and organization are approximations only! 50 The Destruction of LTC Algers 2nd Battalion, 1st Armored Regiment 50 50 NO Frontal Hits caused Tank Casualties All Penetrations seem to be from Tank Guns Only one penetration from a long range 88. This is not a U.S. Technology Problem 50 50 50 75 75 75 50

75 Direction of Attack 50 75 50 75 50 75 50 50 75 50 75 50 75 50 75 75 75 75

75 AT Fire 75 50 50 75 88 50 75 75 50 50 50 50 51 Leadership Kasserine Pass Cause/Effect Battlefield Math Directive Orders

+ No Leader Recon - Subordinate Counsel = Conditions for Failure Insight Flexibility in the Plan Faith in Subordinates 52 Basic Battle Analysis Check on Learning: Battle Analysis Methodology 53 BACKUP SLIDES 54 FM 6-22 Army Leadership Kasserine Pass Core Leader Competencies The Do of Be, Know, Do

LEADS Leads Others Establishes and imparts clear intent and purpose Empowers and delegates responsibility and authority to subordinates. Extends Influence Beyond Chain of Command Builds and Maintains Alliances Leads by Example Leads with confidence in adverse situations Provides leader presence at the right time and place Seeks and is open to diverse ideas and points of view Explores alternative explanations and approaches for accomplishing tasks. Uses knowledge sources and subject matter experts. Communicates Conveys thoughts and ideas to ensure shared understanding. Expresses thoughts and ideas clearly to individuals and groups. Uses correct grammar and doctrinally correct phrases. Recognizes potential miscommunication. 55 FM 6-22 Army Leadership Kasserine Pass

Core Leader Competencies The Do of Be, Know, Do DEVELOPS Creates a Positive Organizational Climate Encourages subordinates to exercise initiative, accept responsibility, and take ownership Guides subordinate leaders in thinking through problems for themselves. Allocates decision making to the lowest appropriate level. Encourages open and candid communications Reinforces the expression of contrary and minority viewpoints 56 FM 6-22 Army Leadership Kasserine Pass Core Leader Competencies The Do of Be, Know, Do ACHIEVES Gets Results Prioritizes, organizes and coordinates taskings for teams or other organizational structures/groups Limits over-specification and micromanagement. Makes feedback part of work processes Gives and seeks accurate and timely feedback.

Uses feedback to modify duties, tasks, procedures, requirements, and goals when appropriate. 57 1 6 14 FEBRUARY x Djebel Hamra Djebel Lessouda GERHARDT 6 1 168 2

Poste de Lessouda x Sadaguia xGERHARDT 1 3 Sidi Salam Zaafria El Fekka R. 3 x STENKHOFF 91 x Faid 1

Sidi Bou Zid 2 REIMANN GERHARDT 17 Ain Rebaou 168 Garet Hadid 3 x x 168 REIMANN Djebel Ksaira SCHUETTE

Bir el Hafa x Maizila Pass x SCHUETTE STENKHOFF 58 168 3 Djebel Lessouda Djebel Hamra x 168 2 168 GERHARDT

Poste de Lessouda Sadaguia Sidi Salam Zaafria El Fekka 3 R. Sidi Bou Zid 1 GERHARDT Ain Rebaou 168 Garet Hadid Bir el Hafa 2 3

168 x REIMANN Djebel Ksaira x 168 GERHARDT 3 x Faid 1 x Faid Pass & Sidi Bou Zid Area CC A

REIMANN Maizila Pass 59 15 FEBRUARY 6 3 1 2 Djebel Hamra Djebel Lessouda 168 2 Poste de Lessouda x

Sadaguia x Zaafria El Fekka x Sidi Salam GERHARDT Faid Sidi Bou Zid REIMANN x R. Ain Rebaou STENKHOFF SCHUETTE 168 Garet Hadid

3 168 Djebel Ksaira Bir el Hafa Maizila Pass 60 Doctrine Kasserine Pass US Tank/Tank Destroyer Doctrine US Tank/TD Reality in 1943 14 Feb 15 Feb 61 The Destruction of LTC Algers 2nd Battalion, 1st Armored Regiment 62

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • SAQ -Short Answer Questions for AP World History

    SAQ -Short Answer Questions for AP World History

    similar in the period of the first wave civilizations. SAQ about Classical China- Era 2.2. Short Answer Question- (SAQ) Historical Thinking Skill- Change and Continuity Over Time "The Han is one of China's great historical dynasties. Like the Qin, the...
  • Organická chemie - WebSnadno.cz

    Organická chemie - WebSnadno.cz

    Sumární (souhrnné) nebo molekulové vzorce Příklad: vzorec C2H6O = dimethylether ( ether ) CH3 - O - CH3 = ethanol ( alkohol ) CH3 - CH2 - OH Izomerie Jev kdy více sloučenin majících stejný sumární vzorec se liší strukturou...
  • Chapter 1

    Chapter 1

    Atmospheric Pressure One atmosphere (atm) is defined as exactly 760 mmHg. 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr (exact) 1 mmHg = 1 torr (exact) In SI units, pressure is measured in pascals (Pa); 1 atm = 1.01325 ×...
  • Technical English: Fewer is better!

    Technical English: Fewer is better!

    Dear Profs Black and White. Can't find the editor name(s) Dear Editor(s) Better than Sir/Madam. Cover Letter. My standard form. ... KRIS advisors see more rejections than other researchers. Minor or Major Revisions. Actions. Prepare a response for the editor.
  • Chemical Reactions - Mountain Top University

    Chemical Reactions - Mountain Top University

    A chemical reaction is a chemical change which forms new substances. In a chemical reaction atoms/molecules comprising the reactants combine together to form products. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by the formation of one or more products with properties different...
  • Blue Oasis Pools - USAE Group of Companies

    Blue Oasis Pools - USAE Group of Companies

    City of Riverbank Water Leak Repair ... Otherwise, this would usually be done under water and in muddy conditions and takes about another hour to perform Another good example of safe excavation is this unmarked fiber optic line that was...
  • Precision Measuring - Weebly

    Precision Measuring - Weebly

    Each inch is broken into ten, for .1 of an inch. {Precision Measuring. Gateway To Technology® Unit 1 - Lesson 1.3 - Measuring. The caliper's dial graduations are. in thousandths (.001) of an inch. The reference edge keeps track of...
  • Motivating Clients for Treatment and Addressing Resistance

    Motivating Clients for Treatment and Addressing Resistance

    Ongoing assessment is important to ensure adequate support is provided and for detecting the possible emergence of any mental health problems. Sources: Kahan, M. & Marsh, D. 2000, 'Intoxication, Overdose and Withdrawal' in Brand, B. (ed.), Management of Alcohol, Tobacco...