APA Citation Methods - UIS

APA Citation Methods - UIS

APA Citation Methods Brought to you by the Center for teaching and learning What is APA? American Psychological Association When is it mostly used? What is it mostly concerned with? A method of citing references Parenthetical citations in text References page Formatting Title Page: Running Head, page number, Identifying

information Subsequent Pages: Running Head, page number, headings/ seriation Quoting Directly vs. Paraphrasing/Summarizing Short Quotations If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

Long Quotations Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199) Summary or Paraphrase If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.) According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Parenthetical CitationsOne Author Reference in text (when the text as a whole needs to be cited) o oLast name (year of publication) (2005) argues for the development of new curricula. oRowling oReference in text (when only part of the text, such as an idea or a quote from a specific page, needs to be cited) oLast name (year of publication, page number) (2005, p.189)

olRowling oNo reference in text o(Last name of author, copyright year). oThe development of new curricula has been argued before (Rowling, 2005). Parenthetical CitationsMore than One Author oWhen a work has two authors, always cite both authors. o Reference in text oLast names of authors separated by and (year of publication) oRowling and Cramer (2005) argue for the development of new curricula. oNo

reference in text o(Last names of authors separated by an ampersand, copyright year). oThe development of new curricula has been argued before (Rowling & Cramer, 2005). Parenthetical CitationsMore than One Author oWhen a work has three or more authors, always cite all the authors the first time the text is used. Thereafter, use the first authors last name followed by et al. oOmit year upon third time citing source. o Reference in text oLast names of authors separated with and before final name, (year of publication) oRowling, Dowling, Benis, George, and Cramer (2005) argue for the

development of new curricula. oRowling oNo oRowling et al. (2005) argue . . . et al. argue . . . reference in text o(Last names of authors separated with an ampersand before final name, copyright year) oThe development of new curricula has been argued before (Rowling, Dowling, Benis, George, & Cramer, 2005). oThe development of new curricula has been argued before (Rowling et al., 2005). oThe development of new curricula has been argued before (Rowling et al.). Parenthetical Citations

Works Without an Author oWhen a work is signed Anonymous, cite the word Anonymous. o(Anonymous, year) oStatistics show a higher incidence of criminal activity during the summer months (Anonymous, 2007, pp. 89-96). oItalicize the title of a book or periodical. o(Title of Book, or Title of Periodical, year, page number) oStatistics show a higher incidence of criminal activity during summer months (New Yorker, 2007, p. 97). oIn

most other cases, use double quote marks around the title, publication year, page number o(Article title or Chapter title, year, page number) oStatistics show a higher incidence of criminal activity during summer months (Study Results, 2007, p. 77). Parenthetical CitationsGroups as Authors oCorporations, associations, government agencies, research groups, etc. are usually listed each time they are used in text, unless an abbreviation makes the group easily recognizable. oReference in the text oFirst time mentioned: Full name (year). oThe National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) reports (2002).

oSubsequent oNot mentions: abbreviation (year). oThe NIMH reports(2002). referenced in text oFirst time mentioned (full name, year) o(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2002). oSubsequent mentions (abbreviation, year) o(NIMH, 2002). oIf the name is not easily recognizable by an abbreviation, such as the University of Iowa, the group must be spelled out each Parenthetical CitationsClassical

Works oWhen using classical works such as the Greeks, Romans, or the Bible, a reference entry is not required. You must only identify the version and lines used. o1 Cor. 13:1 (Revised Standard Edition) oWhen using very old works where the date is not applicable, list the year of the translation you used. oReference oIf in text Aristotle argues . . . (trans. 1922). oNot referenced in text oThe ethos, pathos, and logos . . . (Aristotle, trans. 1922). a text does not have a date, cite the authors name followed

by n.d. oReference in text (n.d.) Julius Caesar argued . . . (n.d.). oNot referenced in text oThe Trojan horse . . . (Caesar, n.d.). Reference List oUsed to indicate where information presented in the essay can be retrieved. oOnly include texts cited in the essay. oListed alphabetically by author or title. oReference list begins a new page, with References centered at top of page. oThe first line of an entry is at the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented one-half inch (hanging indent). oDouble-space all reference entries. Reference List Authors Names

o Use last names, first initials with all authors names in reverse order, regardless of quantity o Last name, first initial. o Griggs, B.W., Holland, R.H., & Mills, S.R. Reference List Capitalization of Titles oCapitalize the first word in the title and subtitle, and any proper nouns (cities, countries, peoples names) for book, article, and chapter titles oCapitalize the first word, all nouns, verbs, adverbs, and adjectives for names of journals oUse no special treatment for titles of shorter works (poems, short stories, essays, short articles) o Italicize titles of longer works (books, periodicals/journals) oDont drop any words, such as A, An, or The, from the titles of periodicals (newspapers, magazines, journals)

Reference List Place of Publication oGive the city for US publishers and add the state abbreviations for all US cities except Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. oCity, o State: Name of press Anderson, IN: Warner Press. oUse a shortened version of the publishers name except for an association (AMA), corporation, or university press; drop Co., Inc., Publishers, but retain Books or Press. oCity, State: Name of press oAnderson,

IN: Warner Press. Reference List Books oThree main parts: Author, title, and publication information oBook with one author oLast name, first initial. (year). Title. City of Publication: Press. oBroadway, B. (2002). Pink houses and family taverns. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. oTwo to seven authors oLast name, first initial., Last Name, first initial., & Last Name, first initial. (year). Title. City of publication: Press.

oBroadway, oEight B., Carrol, L., Smith, T. (2007). How the lady sings. New York: Harper. or more authors oLast name, first initial., Last name, first initial., Last name, first initial., Last name, first initial., Last name, first initial., Last name, first initial., . . . Last name, first initial. (year). Title. City of publication: Press. Reference ListBooks oArrange references by the same author chronologically, with the earlier date of publication listed first oVan Delay, A. (1994). Venetian blinds: Contemporary study of compulsive lying. New York: Pendant Publishing (not Publishers). oVan Delay, A. (1997). Seinfeld: The show about nothing. New York: Penguin Books. oNo

Author oTitle (year). City of publication: press. Creation of the media: Political origins of the media. (1922). Los Angeles: Houghton-Mifflin. oThe Chicago manual of style (15th ed.). (2003). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. o Reference List Journal Articles oFour major parts: author, date, article title, and publication information (periodical title, volume number, and page number) oLast name, first initial. (year). Title of article. Title of publication, volume, pages. oTyson, P. A., & Gordon, M. G. (1998). The Psychology of women. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 46, 361-364. oBernstein, B. J. Atomic diplomacy: Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Diplomatic History, 28(3), 126-129.

Reference ListNewspapers and Magazine Articles oFive major parts: author, date of publication, title of article, title of newspaper or magazine, page numbers. oLast name, first initial. (year, month day of publication). Title of article. Title of newspaper or magazine, page numbers. oFor magazines, the volume number is italicized, with the issue number in parentheses after, and inserted after the magazine title; formatted: Volume(Issue). oKramer, C. F. (2003, June 22). A health threat baffling for its lack of a pattern. The New York Times, p. A14. oChamberlin, J., Novotney, A., Packard, E., & Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing worker well-being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share their research on work, stress, and health. Monitor on Psychology. 39(5), 26-29. oCrane, N. F. (2003, September). Anarchy at sea. Atlantic Monthly, 50-80. oDont abbreviate the names of months, ever.

Reference List Electronic Sources oArticle accessed through a library subscription service oSeven major parts: authors name, year of publication, title of article and publication, volume, page numbers, and where retrieved. oLast name, first initial. (year). Title of article. Title of publication, volume, page numbers. Date retrieved from where. oJackson, G. (2004). Multiple historic meanings of the Spanish civil war. Science and Society, 68(3), 272-276. Retrieved from the Lexis Nexis Academic database. oDont abbreviate the names of months, ever . Reference List Online Daily Newspaper oSix major parts: authors name, date of publication, title of article and publication, and web address. oLast

name, first initial. (year, month day of publication). Title of article. Title of publication. Retrieved date, from web address. oForeman, R., Bennett, E., & Collins, T. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com. oDont abbreviate the names of months, ever. Reference List Personal or Professional Websites oFour major parts: website name/author of website (if known), web address. oLast name, first initial. Page of site. Retrieved web address. oColbert, S. (n.d.). Home page. Retrieved from

http://www.colbertnation.com. oTitle of website. (last updated date). Retrieved from web address. oAmerican Association for Artificial Intelligence. (2001, March). Retrieved from http://www.aaai.org. oDont abbreviate the names of months, ever. DOIs Digital Object Identifier A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The DOI may be hidden; viewing the original copy of the article usually shows the DOI. Use this format for the DOI in references: doi:xxxxxxxxx When a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is needed to identify or locate the content. If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the journal or of the book or report publisher.

Journal Article with DOI Journal Article with DOI, more than seven authors Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi: 10.1037/02786133.24.2.225 Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267. doi: 10.1080/14622200410001676305 Journal Article without DOI Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

Where do you locate the DOI? Heres the DOI, on the first page of the article. Sample Reference Page References American Association for Artificial Intelligence. (2001, March). Retrieved from http://www.aaai.org Bernstein, B. J. Atomic diplomacy: Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Diplomatic History, 28 (3), 126-129. Broadway, B. (2002). Pink houses and family taverns. Bloomington, IL: Indiana University Press. Broadway, B., Carrol, L., Smith, T. (2007). How the lady sings. New York: Harper. Broadway, B., et al. (2008). How the man sings. New York: Harper. Crane, N. F. (2003, September). Anarchy at sea. Atlantic Monthly, 50-80. Creation of the media: Political origins of the media. (1922). Los Angeles: Houghton-Mifflin. Foreman, R., Bennett, E., & Collins, T. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267. doi: 10.1080/14622200410001676305 Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Jackson, G. (2004). Multiple historic meanings of the Spanish civil war. Science and Society, 68(3), 272-276. Retrieved from the Lexis Nexis Academic database. Kramer, C. F. (2003, June 22). A health threat baffling for its lack of a pattern. The New York Times, p. A14. Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap Tyson, P. A., & Gordon, M.G. (1998). The Psychology of women. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 46, 361-364. Van Delay, A. (1994). Venetian blinds: Contemporary study of compulsive lying. New York: Pendant Publishing. Van Delay, A. (1997). Seinfeld: The show about nothing. New York: Penguin Books. Final Word on APA oEach type of source requires specific formatting, both in text and on the references list. This workshop covered the most commonly used citations. oThe information in this workshop was provided by The APA Publication Manual (6th Ed). oRefer to an APA handbook or www.apa.org for more information. oContact the Center for Teaching and Learning at [email protected] or 217-206-6503 for further assistance.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Présentation PowerPoint - Université Paris-Sud

    Présentation PowerPoint - Université Paris-Sud

    At equilibrium, Blue, C-H bonds. Green, C-C. This is a basin with 2 e_ Dissociated bond: no density in the middle, two basins. Quite a different picture. Red = lone pairs. Zero density in the middle. Experimental Consequences? A well...
  • Chapter 7 test - Alabaster City Schools

    Chapter 7 test - Alabaster City Schools

    Chapter 7 test review game. 1. U.S. citizens ... serve 10-year terms. are appointed for life. must be lawyers. cannot be impeached. ... A person convicted of a crime in a district court has the right to. appeal the verdict...
  • A Short History of South Africa - Rutgers University

    A Short History of South Africa - Rutgers University

    A Short History of South Africa Republic of South Africa 48 million people: 80% black African, 9% white, 9% Coloured, 2.5% Asian (mainly Indian and Chinese), 11 official languages recognized by Constitution (Top 5: isiZulu, isiXhosa, Afrikaans, Sepedi, English) Upper-middle-income...
  • Trading Standards - North Lincs SAB

    Trading Standards - North Lincs SAB

    Measures potential victims can take. NEVER open the door to unknown callers. Install a door chain and us it. Ask for photo identification. Check their telephone number in the phone book and NOT rely on the number on their ID
  • R002 Unit 2 - LO1 Cambridge L2 - Enderoth

    R002 Unit 2 - LO1 Cambridge L2 - Enderoth

    To achieve a pass grade: Candidates will produce a portfolio of evidence that includes a proposal scenario, a product that is between 1 and 2 minutes long and includes an interactive menu and splash screen.
  • The Crucible - Seneca Valley School District

    The Crucible - Seneca Valley School District

    The Crucible is based on the true story of the Salem Witch Trials, which took place from 1692 to 1693. Allegory - a story, poem, or picture (or in this case, a play) that can be interpreted to reveal a...
  • Aspect-Oriented Design and Patterns - ut

    Aspect-Oriented Design and Patterns - ut

    Aspect-Oriented Design and Patterns Ilja Livenson [email protected] University of Tartu 12.04.2006
  • Stand, Share, Sit! - WELCOME TO COACH EZEH'S CLASS

    Stand, Share, Sit! - WELCOME TO COACH EZEH'S CLASS

    Stand, Share, Sit! Does Brutus make a valid point in his speech? If you were a citizen of Rome, would you side with Brutus after hearing his speech?