AP Human Geography Review - Mr. Flohr's APHG Class
APHG REVIEW UNIT 1: GEOGRAPHY, ITS NATURE AND PERSPECTIVE KEY TERMS Absolute Distance
A distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or kilometer. Absolute Location The exact position of an object or place,
measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system. Accessibility The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place.
Aggregation To come together into a mass, sum, or whole. Anthropogenic human induced
changes on the natural environment Azimuthal Projection (Lambert Equal Area)
a map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface Breaking Point The outer edge of citys sphere of influence, used in the law of retail
gravitation to describe the area of a citys hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supplies. Cartogram a type of thematic map that transforms space such that the
political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area Cartogram Cartography
The theory and practice of making visual representations of Earths surface in the form of maps. Choropleth Map a thematic map that uses tones or colors
to represent spatial data as average values per unit area Cognitive Map An image of the a portion of the Earth that an individual creates in his or her own mind.
Complementarity The actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions. Contagious Diffusion
The spread of a disease, an innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place. Coordinate System
A standard grid, composed of line of latitude and longitude used to determine the absolute location of an object, place, or feature on the Earths surface. Cultural Ecology Also called nature-society geography,
the study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments in which they live. Cultural Landscape The human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a
particular culture or society. Distance Decay The decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places or people as the distance between them increases.
Dot Maps Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births. Dot Maps
Earth System Science A systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between Earths physical systems and processes on a global scale.
Environmental Geography The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environments and vice versa. Eratosthenes
The head librarian at Alexandria during the 3rd c. BCE, one of the first cartographers, who performed a remarkably accurate computation of Earths circumference, and is also credited with coining the term geography.
Expansion Diffusion The spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange.
Fertile Crescent The name given to the area of land stretching from the lower Nile Valley along the eastern Mediterranean coast and into Syria and present day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 BC.
Formal Region Definition or regions based on common themes such as similarities in language, climate, land use, etc. Friction of Distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places. Fuller Projection
A type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions no longer have any meaning Functional Region
Definition of regions based on common interaction, such as the a boundary line drawn around the circulation of a newspaper. Geographic Information System (GIS) A set of computer tools used to capture,
store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data. Geographic Scale The scale at which a geographer analyzes a particular phenomena, such as national census data.
Geoid The actual shape of the Earth, which is rough and oblate. Earths diameter is longer around the equator than along the north-south meridians.
Global Positioning System A set of satellites used to help determine location anywhere on Earths surface with a portable electronic device. Gravity Model
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their population and their distance from each other. (formula Barrons p. 74) Hierarchical Diffusion
A type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of a physical or cultural community between those places. Idiographic
Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place International Dateline The line of longitude that marks where each new day begins.
Intervening Opportunity The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away. Isoline
A map line that connects points of equal or very similar values Large Scale A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units, usually represent
smaller areas and have higher resolution. Latitude The angular distance north or south of the equator, also known as parallels.
Law of Retail Gravitation A law stating that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business since larger cities have a wider influence on the surrounding hinterlands. Location Charts
On a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information about a particular political unit or jurisdiction. Longitude
The angular distance east or west of the Prime Meridian, also known as meridians. Map Projection A mathematical method that involves transferring Earths sphere onto a flat
surface. Map Scale The ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of the same area on Earths surface.
George Perkins Marsh An inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, Man and Nature, provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions
Mercator Projection A true conformal cylindrical map projection that is particularly useful for navigation since it maintains accurate direction, however it makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized
Mollewide Projection map projection that sacrifices accuracy of angle and shape in favor of accurate proportions in area. It is used primarily where accurate representation of area takes precedence over shape, for instance small maps depicting global distributions, its very similar to the Robinson
Projection Natural Landscape The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities.
Nomothetic concepts or rules that can be applied universally W.D. Pattison
He claimed that geography drew from four distinct traditions, the earthscience, the culture-environment, the locational, and the area-analysis. Perceptual Region Highly individualized definition of regions based on perceived commonalities in
culture and landscape. Peters Projection an equal-area projection purposely centered on Africa in an attempt to treat all regions of Earth equally
Physical Geography The realm of geography that studies the structures, processes, distributions, and changes through time of the natural phenomena of Earths surface. Preference Map
A map that displays individual preferences for certain places. Proportional Symbols Map A thematic map in which the size of a
chosen symbol, such as a circle or triangle, indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region Ptolemy Roman geographer-astronomer, author
of Guide to Geography, which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude. Qualitative Data Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography, often collected
through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives. Quantitative Data Data associated with mathematical
models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association Quantitative Revolution Period in human geography associated with the wide-spread adoption of
mathematical models and statistical techniques. Reference Map A type of map that shows information for a particular place, such as attractions and landmarks.
Region A territory that encompasses many places that share physical and or cultural attributes. Relative Distance
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Relative Location
The position of place relative to the places around it. Relocation Diffusion The diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, etc. from one place to another through migration.
Remote Sensing The observation and mathematical measurement of the Earths surface using aircraft and satellites. Resolution
A maps smallest discernable unit. Robinson Projection A projection that attempts to balance several possible projections errors, it
does maintain area, shape, distance, or direction completely accurately, but it minimizes errors in each. Carl Sauer Geographer from Cal Berkley who defined the concept of cultural
landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical anaylsis, which results from the interaction between humans the physical environment. Sense of Place Feelings evoked by people as a result of
certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place. Site The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics.
Situation The relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system, a
places spatial context. Small Scale A map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on Earth is quite small, usually used to depict large areas.
Spatial Diffusion The ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, and outbreaks of disease, travel over space.
Spatial Perspective An intellectual framework that looks at the particular locations of a specific phenomenon, how and why that phenomenon is where it is, and finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other places.
Sustainability The concept of using Earths resources in such a way that they provide for peoples needs in the present without diminishing Earths ability to provide for future generations.
Thematic Layers Individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in GIS to understand and analyze a spatial relationship.
Thematic Map A type of map that displays one or more variables, such as population, or income level, with a specific area. Time-Space Convergence
The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction among those places. Topographic Maps
Maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations. Topological Space The amount of connectivity between places regardless of the absolute
distance separating them Transferability The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another. Visualization
Use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three dimensional or interactive MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Section 1: Geography as a Field of Inquiry 1. Human-induced environmental change is often referred to as A. anthropomorphic B. anthropocentric C. anthropogenic D. unsustainable E. environmental determinism
Section 1: Geography as a Field of Inquiry 2. Conserving resources to ensure enough for future generations in called A. subsistence agriculture. B. sustainability. C. cultural ecology. D. environmental determinism.
E. the organic movement. Section 1: Geography as a Field of Inquiry 3. _________ argued that cultural landscapes should form the basic unit of geographic inquiry. A. Ptolemy B. George Perkins Marsh
C. Eratosthenes D. Carl Sauer E. W.D. Pattison Section 1: Geography as a Field of Inquiry 4. A thematic layer is A. a method used in cartography to produce mathematically accurate map projections.
B. a map portraying a particular feature that is used in a GIS. C. used in GPS systems to provide more accurate navigational information. D. a map used by early explorers to find particular resources in new regions of Earth. E. used as a method to analyze thematic regions. Section 1: Geography as a Field of
Inquiry 5. Which of the following is the oldest field of geography? A. Cultural ecology B. Conservation biology C. Cartography D. Environmental geography E. Physical geography
Section 2: Thinking Geographically 1. _______ refers to concepts that are universally applicable. A. Nomothetic B. Qualitative C. Idiographic D. Idiocentric E. Quantitative
Section 2: Thinking Geographically 2. A perceptual regions boundaries are A. determined by a set of uniform physical or cultural characteristics across a particular area. B. drawn around the functions that occur between a particular place and the surrounding area. C. determined by the portion of a particular area
that has been modified by human activities. D. fuzzy because they allow for individual interpretation. E. designated by the inclusion of a particular cultural characteristic. Section 2: Thinking Geographically 3. If a geographer performs a study on
peoples perceptions of the Deep South using interviews as the primary data source, the geographers method is A. quantitative. B. systematic. C. anthropogenic. D. qualitative. E. idiographic.
Section 2: Thinking Geographically 4. Which of the following is true concerning regions? A. They are strict functional units. B. The are usually defined by a standard mathematical formula. C. They are figments of the imagination. D. They are conceptual units.
E. They all have well-defined boundaries. Section 2: Thinking Geographically 5. Geographic scale refers to A. the ratio between distance on a map and distance on the Earths surface. B. a conceptual hierarchy of spaces. C. a notion of place based on an individuals
perception of space. D. the many ways that people define regions. E. the level of aggregation at which geographers investigate a particular process. Section 3: Describing Location 1. Seattle is located on Puget Sound in northwestern Washington. It has a large university, a famous
downtown market, and a moist, marine climate. Seattles primary economic activities include ship and aircraft construction and high technology enterprises. This information gives us a description of Seattles A. situation. B. cognitive image. C. site. D. landscape. E. relative distance.
Section 3: Describing Location 2. Lines of longitude A. never meet. B. begin at the equator. C. are referred to as parallels. D. intersect at the poles. E. contain the two tropics.
Section 3: Describing Location 3. Even though some cities are far apart in terms of absolute distance, they are actually quite connected economically and socially. This is representative of A. topographic space. B. cognitive space.
C. topological space. D. relative location. E. situation. Section 3: Describing Location 4. Which of the following is a true statement regarding time-space convergence? A. Places seem to all look the same.
B. Places seem to the getting closer together. C. Places are increasingly concentrated on maintaining their histories. D. Places are making more of an effort to converge activities to save time. E. Places are implementing more rapid forms of transportation. Section 3: Describing
Location 5. Which of the following is NOT a measure of relative distance? A. 2,339 centimeters B. 35 seconds C. Two dollars and fifty cents D. 216 footsteps E. 15 minutes
Section 4: Space and Spatial Processes 1. Toblers first law of geography states, Everything is related to everything else, but A. distant things are generally unrelated. B. near things are more closely related than you might think. C. distance is always a factor. D. near things are more related than distant things.
E. distance is relative. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobler%27s_first_law_of_geogra phy Section 4: Space and Spatial Processes 2. Rap music first appeared in New York in the 1970s. Later it spread to large cities with vibrant African-American populations-such as Los Angeles,
Oakland, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Detroit- without being absorbed by the smaller cities and rural areas in between. This type of spatial diffusion is called A. relocation potential. B. hierarchical diffusion. C. contagious diffusion. D. cultural diffusion. E. cascade diffusion.
Section 4: Space and Spatial Processes 3. Stores and restaurants in Oregon that find it cheaper to buy fresh vegetables grown in California than those grown in Florida are taking advantage of A. expansion diffusion. B. distance decay. C. economies of scale. D. intervening opportunities.
E. retail gravitation. Section 4: Space and Spatial Processes 4. According to the gravity model, which two places are most likely to have a high level of interaction? A. Two cities with very large populations but separated by Atlantic Ocean like New York and London B. Two cities with medium populations separated by a whole continent like Grand Rapids, Michigan and Gulf Shores, Alabama
C. Two cities with small populations that are relatively close together like Richmond, Virginia, and Winchester, Kentucky D. Two cities, one with a large population and the other with a medium population that very close in distance like Seattle and Tacoma, Washington. E. Two cities with medium populations that are relatively close to each other like Akron, Ohio, and Springfield, Missouri Section 4: Space and Spatial Processes
5. Which of the following is NOT a good example of a barrier to spatial diffusion? A. A mountain range. B. A different language. C. A different dietary preference. D. A highway system. E. A strict religious system. Section 5: Map Fundamentals
1. The ratio between distance on a map and distance on Earths surface is called the A. projection. B. resolution. C. scale. D. azimuth. E. aggregation.
Section 5: Map Fundamentals 2. Cartography is the art and science of A. demographics. B. mapmaking. C. spatial orientation. D. cognitive imagery. E. making visualizations. Section 5: Map Fundamentals
3. Map projections attempt to correct for errors in A. transferability. B. area, distance, scale, and proportion. C. area, distance, shape, and direction. D. distance, proximity, and topology. E. distance, shape, and lines of latitude and longitude.
Section 5: Map Fundamentals 4. The Mercator projections preserve A. direction. B. area. C. shape. D. scale. E. distance.
Section 5: Map Fundamentals 5. Topographic maps use which of the following symbols to convey change over space? A. Tonal shadings B. Isolines C. Proportional symbols D. Location charts E. Cartograms
Section 5: Map Fundamentals 6. Which of the following map projections preserves the correct shape of Earths landmasses? A. Fullers dymaxion B. Mercator C. Robinson D. Mollewide
E. Smithsonian Section 5: Map Fundamentals 7. The size of a maps smallest discernable unit is its A. scale. B. density. C. region. D. resolution.
E. projection. FRQS Section 1: Geography as a Field of Inquiry 1. Technological innovations have greatly influenced the methods by which geography can be done today. A. Describe three technological advances
that have dramatically changed the capabilities of the discipline of geography. B. List an application for each type of technology. Section 2: Thinking Geographically 1. Geography is unique from other disciplines in that it applies a spatial perspective to different phenomena
and processes that occur on Earths surface. A. Define the spatial perspective. Include in your definition what it means to think geographically. Include descriptions of the types of data that geographers analyze. B. Provide an examples of a problem that can be solved only from a spatial perspective. Section 2: Thinking
Geographically 2. The region is a highly contested yet critical concept in the study of human geography. A. Why and how do geographers perform the regionalization process? B. What is regional geography? C. Discuss the different types of regions that human geographers study, and provide an example of each type.
Section 3: Describing Location 1. The notion of time-space convergence has had dramatic impacts on how geographers think of distance. A. Define time-space convergence, and give an example of this process at work in the world today. B. Describe the effects of this convergence on the level of connectivity between places. Does the process connect all
areas of the globe? C. Discuss Toblers first law of geography as it relates to the notion of time-space convergence. Does this law still apply and/or will it apply in the future? Section 4: Space and Spatial Processes 1. Geographers define space, location, and distance according to both absolute and relative measures. A. Describe the difference between absolute and relative
measures of distance. B. Give two examples of instances where the degree of interaction between places is more related to connectivity that to absolute distance. C. Describe the difference between absolute and relative measures of location. Give examples. Section 5: Map Fundamentals
1. Scale is an extremely important concept in geography because spatial relationships appear to vary depending upon the scale at which they are measured. A. Define scale. Discuss the relationship of scale to resolution. B. Discuss the role of scale in interpreting geographical information. C. In the 2000 U.S. presidential election, George W. Bush won the electoral votes of every southern state. Explain how an analysis of these results at the county level could yield
additional valuable information about voting patterns at finer geographical scales. Section 5: Map Fundamentals 2. Preference maps are a unique type of isoline map used in human geography. A. Use your knowledge of preference maps to describe why some places might be more attractive
than others as places live. B. Use your knowledge of preference maps to describe why certain places may or may not be more attractive for certain cohorts.
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