AP Chemistry Exam Review

AP Chemistry Exam Review

+ AP Chemistry Exam Review +Project Contributors Big Idea 1 Big Idea 2 Big Idea 3 Kristie Chiscano, MD Thomas Comey, MA Tom Michocki, MEd Orla Thomas, MEd Brandie Freeman*, EdS Suzanne Adams, MEd Louis Casagrande, PhD Ronald Brandt, PhD Ali McDillon, MEd Anne Marie Norman, MAT

Michelle Winesett, MEd Christina Cummings MEd Big Idea 4 Big Idea 5 Tricia Miller, MS Big Idea 6 Kaleb Underwood, BA Christine Taylor, MEd Kate Smola, MEd Brian Stagg, MCLFS Liz Gosky, MEd Jill Barker*, EdD Bonnie Buchak, MS Pam Kimber, MEd Chris Sterman, MEd Sohum Bhatt, BSE Ouida Dunton, EdS

Glenn Arnold, MEd Dave Foy, MEd Cheryl Vanicek, MEd Labs and Write This Nora Walsh, MS +Project Contributors, Continued Final Editors Paul Cohen*^+, MA Russ Maurer, PhD Bridget Adkins*, MEd Russ Kohnken*, PhD Matthew Kennedy*, PhD Dena Leggett*, PhD Project Coordinator Brandie Freeman, EdS Questions or Comments? Contact [email protected] *- AP Reader, ^ - Table Leader, Writer + -Question + Big Idea #1 Properties of Matter Part I

+Ratio of Masses in a Pure Sample HO Source 2 A 4.5 gram sample of which of the following would have the greatest mass percent of oxygen? All elements and A. Na2O (molar mass = 62 g/mol) Video molecules are made up B. Li2O (molar mass = 30 g/mol) of atoms C. MgO (molar mass = 40 g/mol) Substances with the D. SrO (molar mass = 104 g/mol) same atomic makeup will have same average masses Answer: The ratio of masses of E. 16/62 x 100 = 26 % F. 16/30 x 100 = 53% theexplanation. same substance is Click reveals answer and G. 16/40 x 100 = 40%

independent of size of H. 16/104 x 100 = 15% the substance Molecules with the same atomic makeup (ex: H2O) will have the same ratio ofofaverage atomic LO 1.1: Justify the observation that the ratio the masses of the constituent masses elements in any pure sample of that compound is always identical on the 108 g/mol basis of the atomic molecular theory. H O ratio would be +Composition of Pure Percent mass can be Substances and/orused Mixtures to determine the composition of a substance % mass can also be used to find the empirical

formula Source Video The empirical formula is the simplest formula of a substance It is a ratio between the moles of each element in the substance Quick steps to solve! Click reveals answer and %explanation. to mass, mass to moles, divide by the smallest and multiply til whole!) The molecular formula is the actual formula LO 1.2: Select and apply mathematical routines to mass data of to aidentify or substance infer the composition of pure substances and/or mixtures. +Identifying Purity of a Substance

Source Impurities in a substance can change the percent Video composition by mass If more of a certain The mass percent of oxygen in pure glucose, C6H12O6 is 53.3 element is added from percent. A chemist analyzes a sample of glucose that contains anpercent impurity, then the impurities and determines that the mass of oxygen is percent mass of that 49.7 percent. Which of the follow impurities could account for element will increase and the low mass percent of oxygen in the sample? a. has the lowest percent by mass of a. n-eicosane (C20H42) vice versa O When heating a hydrate,

b. ribose C5H10O5 the substance is heated c. fructose, C6H12O6 several times to ensure d. sucrose C12H22O11 the water is driven off Then you are simply left with the pure substance and no excess water LO 1.3: The student is able to select and apply mathematical relationships to mass data in order to justify a claim regarding the identity and/or estimated purity of a substance. Source +Mole Calculations 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 representative particles 1 mole = molar mass of a substance 1 mole = 22.4 L of a gas at STP Video Click reveals answer and explanation. LO 1.4: The student is able to connect the number of particles, moles, mass and volume of substances to one another, both qualitatively and quantitatively.

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