AP Biology - sshs.ecboe.org

AP Biology - sshs.ecboe.org

AP Biology Genetics and Development ZYGOTE Fertilized egg of a frog Specialized Epithelial tissue See the DIFFERENT shapes? Specialization

Nervous Tissue Morphogenesis over time Animal development Cell movement Zygote (fertilized egg)

Eight cells Blastula (cross section) Gut Gastrula (cross section) Adult animal

(sea star) Cell division Morphogenesis Observable cell differentiation Seed leaves Plant development Zygote

(fertilized egg) Two cells Shoot apical meristem Root apical meristem

Embryo inside seed Plant Apoptosis Programmed Cell Death its in the DNA. Morphogenesis in Plants

Morphogenesis in Animals Cloning of Dolly Mammary cell donor Egg cell donor Egg cell

from ovary Cultured mammary cells are semistarved, arresting the cell cycle and causing dedifferentiation Nucleus removed

Cells fused Nucleus from mammary cell Grown in culture Early embryo Implanted in uterus of a third sheep Surrogate

mother Embryonic development Lamb (Dolly) genetically identical to mammary cell donor Embryonic Stem Cells (These have pluripotential they can become any type of cell.) LE 21-9

Embryonic stem cells Adult stem cells Totipotent cells Pluripotent cells Cultured

stem cells Different culture conditions Different types of differentiated cells

Liver cells Nerve cells Blood cells Pattern Formation for Plants Pattern Formation Pattern Formation

Positional Information Maternal Effect and Zygote Polarity Point of sperm entry Animal hemisphere

Vegetal hemisphere Animal pole Vegetal pole . Sperm

Molecules of a cytoplasmic determinant Unfertilized egg cell Molecules of another cytoplasmic determinant Nucleus Fertilization Zygote

(fertilized egg) Mitotic cell division Two-celled embryo Cytoplasmic determinants in the egg . Early embryo (32 cells)

NUCLEUS Signal transduction pathway Signal receptor Signal molecule (inducer)

Stem cells communicating using ligand molecules Segment Genes Adult fruit fly Fruit fly embryo (10 hours) Fly chromosome

Mouse chromosomes Mouse embryo (12 days) Adult mouse Hox Genes

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