And now in other areas…

And now in other areas…

And now in other areas CHY Lesson 14 And now in other areas Learning Goal:

Recognize other societies that were changing alongside the renaissance and reformation of western Europe 1. Review the values and ideals of European society 2. The Ottoman Empire grows 3. Japan reorganized Culture and Daily Life in Europe

Renaissance and reformation ideas only involved a small percentage of the people Ordinary people had their own ways of doing things; their own way of seeing the world Superstitions Most people still lived in small villages, struggling with nature to

survive War, famine, and plague continued to affect people Superstitions were used to explain and control their lives Belief in spirits meant that nothing was an accident Bad things were caused by bad spirits Village priests accepted or ignored this Villagers use the priests to conteract the bad (it couldnt hurt!)

The people also use a wise person to interpret strange events These men and women could provide remedies for warding off evil Really, a belief in witchcraft Witches could be good or bad Often unusual people who kept themselves apart from the community

Accusations and stories were embellished over time Witch hunts began in the mid-1500s (lasted about 100 years) Put on trial Punishment was death Religious and secular leaders accepted witches as explanation for problems

Daily Life People enjoyed working and relaxing together; drinking, sewing, storytelling, playing games, watching travelling actors perform, etc Making fun of each other was also common in public displays of charivari or abbeys of misrule Also showed resentment of the privileges of those who ruled

People stuck with those who lived like them Joined guilds based on professions Villagers made decisions about their village together (small villages may only have a dozen families) Spread of Knowledge Do I need to explain the printing press?

Almanacs were published with predictions for the weather, etc. Peddlers travelled around selling books Priest travelled around taking the messages of Luther, Calvin, etc. Those of different religions did struggle to coexist Changes Wages rose as labour force declined due to plague, and the end of

serfdom (peasants were free to go where the money was!) Religious wars were expensive, money became more scarce Cheese and eggs were cheapest sources of protein Salt was important Spices were introduced from the East (luxury items at first) New vegetables arrived (asparagus, melons, tomatoes, spinach) People ate with their fingers; picked from a common dish

Brick and stone housing became more common in the cities Peasants lived in small thatched roof homes Glass was difficult to get and expensive Shutters were used instead Most people slept on sacks of straw Traditional culture declined as people moved from villages to cities

Food was bought in a shop rather than picked from a field City dwellers became more sophisticated Had less need for magic or wise people Superstition lost its influence A Vast Empire: The Ottomans

Ottomans: followers of the ghazi (warrior) Osman (ruled 1300-1326) Small empire that acted kindly towards those they conquered Lives of peasants improved Muslims served in the army but didnt pay taxes; non-Muslims paid taxes but didnt have to serve in the army Brief interruption between 1402-1451

Powerful Sultans Lead to Expansion Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (pop 50 000, down from 1 million) in 1453 No territory but still ruled the Bosporus Strait (trade into the Black Sea) Attacked the city with 26 ft long cannons Ran a chain across the strait

Entered the city after 7 weeks Now Mehmed the Conqueror City opened to new people of all backgrounds and religions Renamed the city Istanbul Continued on, capturing the holy cities of Islam: Mecca and Medina (Saudi Arabia)

Carried on through the Middle East, capturing Cairo (Egypt) (same time as Cortez was capturing the Aztec Empire) Suleyman the Lawgiver Ruled from 1520-1566 Called Suleyman the Magnificient in the West, due to cultural achievements

Carried on expanding the Ottoman empire through conquest Pushed through Hungary and Austria to the outskirts of Vienna Only Charles V (Hapsburg Empire in Austria, Germany, Spain, Portugal) had an empire to rival the Ottomans Ottoman Social Structure Very efficient and organized

New law code for criminal and civil issues Simplified taxation and govt bureaucracy Daily life was better for most people Sultan Suleyman had 20 000 personal slaves to run the palace Slaves were drafted boys from conquered Christian territories Educated them, converted them to Islam, trained them 30 000 soldiers (called janissaries) trained to be loyal to the sultan only

Christian parents often bribed officials to take their sons because they could become high level officials Suleyman followed strict Islamic law This meant the Ottomans granted religious freedom to Christians and Jews These groups reported regularly to the sultan so that any potential

conflicts could easily be minimized Suleyman was a student of poetry, history, geography, astronomy, mathematics, and architecture Hired the best of the best to build the Mosque of Suleyman with four schools, a library, a bath, and a hospital Art and literature flourished; similar to European renaissance

Looked to Persia and Arabia for models Lots of cultural blending The Empire Declines Suleyman killed his ablest son and drove another into exile Incompetent third son inherited Become the custom for each new sultan to have his brothers

strangled Kept sons prisoner in the harem (no education or training) Led to weak leaders Yet the empire continued to influence into the early 20th century Japan, at this time Shogun (military leaders) in the north and south began to fight each

other in 1300s In 1467, civil war tore apart the old feudal system 100s of separate domains (regions) took independent power This sengoku (warring period) lasted until 1568 Powerful samurai took control and called themselves daimyo Emperor (despite being a descendent of Amaterasu the sun goddess) lost all real power and became a figurehead

Similar to European feudalism Built castles and armed themselves with samurai on horseback Constantly fighting with each other for land and power Ambitious daimyo sought to control the entire country 1575, first time firearms (muskets) were used successfully in Japan, by Nobunaga

He was unable to retain control for long and committed seppuku Japan was finally unified in 1600 by Tokugawa Ieyasu Moved the capital from Kyoto to Edo (now Tokyo) Tokugawa Ieyasu Shogun who unites

Japan in 1600 Social structure in Tokugawa period Merchants were even below the peasants Culture was very

important to samurai Poetry, drama, tea ceremony, Zen Buddhism all thrived

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