Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome 1st Yrs What was the Roman empire? An empire = 1 country controls other lands Existed between 500 BC and 500 AD Lasted almost 1000 years!

Rome = most important city in Europe Controlled most of Europe and some of Africa Sources of our knowledge Ruins of Roman buildings Colosseum, Arch of Titus, Pantheon Old statues and frescoes Roman writers, even graffiti Roman artefacts money, pottery, jewelry

Pompeii Good source of information about life in Ancient Rome 79 AD volcano Mount Vesuvius Everything preserved Archaeologists have studied it Rome the city

Population 1 million centre of empire Appian Way Road to Rome Tombstones on the way No burials inside city walls why? Arches around the city commemorated Rome city (2)

Main street Via Sacra The Holy Road Went through the centre Used for parades after war victories No carriages allowed during the day Pedestrianised Streets lined with houses Rubbish thrown on street Stepping stones Public toilets

The forum Most famous place in the city Main market held there Shops, businesses, social chats The Senate, the government, beside the forum Rome the city (3) Many famous

buildings Circus Maximus race course Colosseum biggest amphitheatre Public baths Aquaducts water bridges Citizens

Two types of citizens: Patricians And plebians Women and slaves not citizens Citizens 1. Patricians Rich Landowners Didnt do much work easy life Served as Senators or Generals

2. Plebians Poor citizens Shopkeepers, bakers, craftsmen, soldiers Hard life Unemployed got grain called dole Slaves

Not citizens non person Treated like cattle bought and sold 1/3 of the population Criminals or prisoners of war Treated harshly Worked in farms of mines Well-educated slaves were teachers or doctors

Some were gladiators Slaves (2) Flogged if tried to escape Regularly beaten Spartacus slaves revolt Defeated 6000 slaves massacred as warning

Some slaves could earn freedom Gladiators or chariot racers Become a freedman Service called manumission Food - plebians

Very basic Mainly porridge Bread with olives, water or wine Evening meal cena Vegetable stew or bean stew Garum fish sauce covered up smell Food patricians

Feasts reclined on couches 3 courses Vomitorium Variety of dishes fish, meats, fruit Delicacies stuffed dormice, fried snails Ate with fingers Dress - men

Tunics long white t-shirts Tied at waist Cotton in summer, wool in winter Togas over tunics long white sheet Wore leather sandals Dress - women

Unmarried girls long belted tunics Married at 12 Wore long dress called stola Shawl palla over head Avoided tans!! Jewelry necklaces and makeup Red hair extensions popular Houses - plebians

High rise flats called insulae Wood fires common Small whole families in 1-2 rooms Didnt cook there 1st Take-aways! Thermopolae Higher up cheaper Water only pumped to bottom floor

Houses patricians Villas on hills outside capital Domus in the town Many rooms Sometimes front rooms used as shops Villas

Atrium main hall columns and statues Shallow pool impluvium in it Walled garden and patio peristylum Mosaics on floors of rooms Frescoes on walls Women in Roman empire

Not citizens Men dominated society Had to obey men often beaten Girls valued less than boys Newly born girls sometimes left to die Basic education at Ludus (Primary) Didnt go to grammaticus (secondary) school

Boys did Women in Roman Empire (2) Girls stayed at home Learned skills of housework spin, sew Could marry from 12 years

Men were older Had a lot of children Average age of plebian 30 years old Boys Often taught by slaves in school Reading, writing, arithmetic Learned about Greek and Latin culture

Practiced oratory Wrote on boards covered in wax Religion

Pagans believed in many gods Each one controlled a different thing Mars god of war Venus goddess of love Temples built to honour gods The Pantheon Lares Household gold Shrine in each house Thought these gods looked over them Spilled wine as offering before meal Christianity

At first Christians were persecuted Slaves Colosseum fought with lions Christians buried dead in catacombs Emperor Constantine made Christianity official religion Death

Believed in life after death Hades underworld Coin on eyes for Charon Funerals noisy professional wailers Mourners, torch carriers, musicians Speech praising him in Forum Body brought outside wall stone coffin or cremated

How Rome was ruled At first, a republic Citizens had a say Voted for politicians in the senate Senate ruled the republic Women and slaves had no vote Empire

But the republic democracy ended Replaced by an Empire One person ruled the whole empire Called an Emperor e.g. Emperor Augustus, Emperor Nero Controlling an Empire

Huge armies travelled to different province The empire divided into provinces Built roads everywhere Roman army very powerful Controlled the empire Army Divided into 30 legions Controlled different parts of the empire Soldiers in groups of 100 century under the

command of a centurion Soldiers were Roman citizens Good pay Could also sell captured slaves Got conquered land when retired Roman soldiers 25 years in army Excellent discipline and training When not fighting ..building roads and aqueducts Flogged if disobeying

Mutiny legion would be decimated Roman soldier Javelin Short sword Shield with emblem of the legion Strong and flexible body armour Metal helmet Marching sandal metal studs on soles

Pastimes - Gladiators In Colosseum 50,000 people Slaves fought each other in armour Swords of net and spears and tridents Sometimes fought animals Gladiator contests

Fight lasted until one died or wounded Crowd cheered Emperor decided his fate Thumb up or down Successful gladiators could earn their freedom Pastimes chariot racing Circus Maximus 250,000 people 4 teams red, green,

blues, whites Fanatical fans like supporters of football teams Betting on races Very dangerous 7 lap race Piece of cloth dropped at start Public baths (1)

Hundreds in Rome Popular for rich and powerful Men and women separate Children free Bathed, exercised, social chats Even a library and relax for reading Baths (2) Different rooms Tepidarium: Warm room

Caldarium: steamy room with tub of hot water Frigidarium: refreshing, cool pool Slaves massaged with oil and perfume Influence of Ancient Rome 1. Roman Culture

Still use roman alphabet and write some letters Latin formed Italian, French, Spanish languages We use Roman calendar look at months names Copied many of their architecture E.g. GPO columns and capital Influence 2. inventions Still use many Roman ideas The dole

Running water pumps Romans invented under-floor heating system warm air from burning furnace in cellar Forum 1st shopping mall Insulae 1st apartment block Influence 3. Roman Laws

Well-developed legal system Still forms the basis of law in Europe Introduced a common currency so same money used from Scotland to Turkey Influence 4. Roman cities Many cities were Roman villages London, Paris Revision Qs 1. Mention 7 details about slaves 2. Write 8 details about a childs daily life

in Rome. Mention 7 details about slaves

Criminals or captured in war Not citizens no rights Flogged and beaten Worked as gladiators In farms or mines Educated slaves teachers and doctors Spartacus Roman revenge Could be freed by martyr Manumission Wore a cap 1. Write 8 details about a childs daily life

in Rome. Describe house Food Ludus day off for market

Grammer school What you studied What you wrote on Public baths Circus Maximus Role of father in house Recap

Patricians Plebians Slaves Villas Tunic Fashions Education etc Homework Write about a young person growing up in an ancient civilization outside of Ireland. Mention Roman past times

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