Ancient River Valley Civilizations

Ancient River Valley Civilizations

ANCIENT EGYPT 6-1.3 EGYPT VOCABULARY 1. Pictographs: picture symbols 2. Cataracts: rapids along a river, such as those along the Nile in Egypt 3. Pharaoh: the title used by the rulers of Egypt

4. Afterlife: life after death, much of Egyptian religion focused on the afterlife 5. Mummies: specially treated bodies wrapped in cloth in preservation 6. Engineering: the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes 7. Hieroglyphics: the ancient Egyptian writing system that used picture symbols

8. Papyrus: a long-lasting paper-like material made from reeds that the ancient Egyptians used to write on 9. Rosetta Stone: a huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, Greek, and a later form of Egyptian that allowed historians to understand Egyptian writing 10.Sphinxes: imaginary creatures with a human head and the body of a lion that was often shown on Egyptian statues

11.Obelisk: a tall, pointed, four-sided pillar in ancient Egypt Asia Europe Mesopotamia (Tigris and Euphrates Egypt

(The Nile) Africa Indus (India) Huang He (China) GEOGRAPHY OF THE NILE

Longest river in the world Flooding from the Nile makes the land fertile (silt from flooding) South of Egypt cataracts that made sailing that portion of the Nile difficult

GEOGRAPHY OF EGYPT The Gift of the Nile 2 Kingdoms: Upper Egypt Southern region, upriver in relation to Niles flow Lower Egypt Northern region

A delta: triangle-shaped area of land made by soil deposited by river 2/3 of Egypts fertile farmland was located in the Nile GEOGRAPHY OF EGYPT Most of Egypt was desert. Rainfall each year far to the south of Egypt causes

the Nile to flood floods were very predictable The silt made the soil ideal for farming Rivers floods were considered a life-giving miracle

FIRST CIVILIZATION More than 12,000 years ago Farmers also developed irrigation systems Food: Wheat, barley, fruits vegetables Raised cattle and sheep Fish and wild geese and ducks Natural barriers that made Egypt hard to invade: Desert to the west; Mediterranean Sea to the North; Red Sea;

cataracts made the Nile too difficult to sail from the South FIRST CIVILIZATION Protected from invaders, villages grew Wealthy farmers emerged as village leaders By 3200 BC the villages had

banded together and developed into two kingdoms: Lower Egypt Upper Egypt HISTORY KINGS UNIFY EGYPT In the beginning, the king of Lower Egypt ruled from a town called Pe and wore a red crown to symbolize his

authority. The king of Upper Egypt ruled from Nekhen and wore a cone-shaped white crown. HISTORY KINGS UNIFY EGYPT 3100 BC: Menes (king of Upper Egypt) invades Lower Egypt and married the princess and

united the two kingdoms Menes wore both the white and red crown to symbolize his leadership over both kingdoms. HISTORY KINGS UNIFY EGYPT Menes: 1st pharaoh (Means great house; ruler of

Egypt) Started 1st Egyptian dynasty (series of rulers from same family) Dynasty lasted about 200 years THE OLD KINGDOM 2700 BC TO 2200 BC First Dynasty Menes and his family Second Dynasty Rivals of Menes overthrew his

dynasty Around 2700 BC, the Third Dynasty rose to power This marked the beginning of what is known as The Old Kingdom ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SOCIETY AND CULTURE

THE OLD KINGDOM 2700 BC TO 2200 BC Egyptians continued to develop their political system The pharaoh was both a king and a god. Egypt belonged to the gods. Pharaoh came to earth to manage Egypt for the rest of the gods Absolute power over all the land and people He was blamed if ill came to Egypt or the people. To help carry out his duties, the pharaoh hired government

officials from his family. Most famous Khufu (2500s BC): Best known for monuments THE OLD KINGDOM 2700 BC TO 2200 BC Trade Mesopotamian designs are found in Egyptian art Nubia gold, ivory, slaves, and stone Punt incense and myrrh Syria wood

THE OLD KINGDOM 2700 BC TO 2200 BC Religion and Egyptian Life Polytheism Everyone was expected to worship the same gods, though how they worshipped the gods differed from one region to

another Built temples to the gods Major gods: Anubis the god of the dead Re, or Amon-Re the sun god Osiris the god of the underworld Isis the goddess of magic

Horus the sky god, god of the pharaohs THE OLD KINGDOM 2700 BC TO 2200 BC The Afterlife Much of Egyptian religion focused on the afterlife Believed that the afterlife was a happy place Belief came from their idea of ka, or a persons life force When a person died, his or her ka left the body and became

a spirit. However, it remained linked to the body and could not leave the burial site. It had all the same needs as the person had when he or she was living. To meet these needs, they filled tombs with objects for the THE OLD KINGDOM 2700 BC TO 2200 BC Burial Practices

Believed the body had to be prepared for the afterlife it had to be preserved If it decayed, its spirit could not recognize it and that would break the link between the body and the spirit. The ka would then be unable to receive the food and drink it needed to have a good afterlife. Embalming allowed bodies to be preserved for many,

many years Mummies THE OLD KINGDOM 2700 BC TO 2200 BC Burial Practices Only royalty and other members of Egypts elite could afford to have mummies made.

Peasant families buried their dead in shallow graves at the edge of the desert. The hot dry sand and lack of moisture preserved the bodies naturally. THE OLD KINGDOM 2700 BC TO 2200 BC

The Pyramids Built to bury Egypts rulers Began building pyramids during the Old Kingdom Largest Great Pyramid of Khufu Amazing feats of engineering Size of the pyramid symbolized the pharaohs greatness Bigger the pyramid = the great the pharaoh Point of the pyramid symbolized the pharaohs journey to the afterlife Wanted pyramids to be spectacular because they believed that the

pharaoh, as their link to the gods, controlled everyones afterlife THE NEW KINGDOM 1550 BC TO 1050 BC Growth and its Effects on Trade Egypts trade expanded along with its empire Profitable trade routes

developed THE NEW KINGDOM 1550 BC TO 1050 BC Ramses the great 1200s BC came to power Reign was one of the longest in Egyptian history Fought and defeated invaders such as the Hittites and the Sea Peoples (after his death) but were weakened and lost parts of empire

Shortly after the invasions, the New Kingdom came to an end Egypt once again fell into a period of violence and disorder EGYPTIAN FAMILY LIFE Men Expected to marry young to start having children Children Played with toys, took part in ballgames,

and hunted Both boys and girls received an education in morals, writing, math, and sports Most boys at age 14 left school to enter their fathers profession (job)

Women Devoted to homes and families Some did have jobs outside the home A few served as priestesses Some worked as administrators and artisans

Unlike women in other civilizations, Egyptian women did have certain legal rights Could own property Make contracts ZIGGURAT VS. PYRAMID

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