Analysis and write-up of qualitative data Data Transcripts Observations of nonverbals Contextual information Specifics of contact Historical info Verbatim of written material, speeches, etc. Info on observer
The problem with qualitative data Often a mass of data with no rules for the researcher to apply There are no pre-defined categories, dimensions, etc. to tally up The language used by interviewees, etc. has multiple meanings and interpretations Analysis is inherently subjective Types of analysis Dialectical analysis Search for the most powerful conflicts in the
data Metaphor analysis Identifiy metaphors and how they vary Fantasy theme analysis Looks at the stories shared among people Grounded theory and analysis Grounded theory is the most common form of organized qualitative data analysis Developed as a means to bring rigor and therefore greater acceptance of qualitative
methods in social science (sociology) Grounded theory is: An inductive, comparative, and interactive approach to inquiry that offers several openended strategies for conducting emergent inquiry. Charnaz How did grounded theory develop? 1967 Glaser and Strauss book The Discovery of Grounded Theory 1990, 1998 Strauss and Corbin prescriptive
form with predetermined categories and concerns about reliability and validity 2000 Charmaz introduces Constructivist method Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics of grounded theory designs
A process approach Theoretical sampling Constant comparative method Series of coding and recoding data Memoranda Theory generation Educational Research 2e: Creswell
Role of the researcher The researcher serves as both data collection instrument and analysis method The two are linkedadjust data collection as analysis leads in certain ways The researcher is trying to develop theory induction Theory built upward from the data (grounded), not downward from premises to theory to hypotheses to testing Keeps theory close to the data Avoids imposing inappropriate theory on reality
Coding Three stages: Open coding Coding line-by-line original data into codes that the researcher determines to be valuable Extremely subjective Axial coding Combining original codes into major categories and defining subcategories and their relations to the majors
Restricted coding Identifying relationships among codes and categories Zig-zag approach to data collection and analysis Data Collection Close to Saturated Categories Third Interview Data Analysis
More Refined Categories Second Interview Refined Categories First Interview
Preliminary Categories Educational Research 2e: Creswell Toward Saturation of Categories Coding for what is happening So part of it has been good because I can see that I'm not the only one that has good days and bad days,
everybody does. They might not be physical, as much as psychological, but everybody has kind of good days and bad days, as moods and things too. Example from Charnaz Identifying a positive Recognizing other peoples good and bad days
Qualifying their good and bad days Viewing good and bad days as universal Comparing Statements: Sara Shaw Taking a broader view beyond self So part of it has been good because I can see that I'm not the only one that has good days and bad days, everybody does. They might not be physical, as much as
psychological, but everybody has kind of good days and bad days, as moods and things too Seeing beyond self Discerning the content of good and bad days Comparing statements: Nancy Swensen dealing with her illness on a bad day and her mother with
AlzheimersBeing caught in chaos And if Im trying to get dinner ready and Im already feeling bad, shes in front of the refrigerator. Then she goes to put her hand on the stove and I got the fire on. And then shes in front of the microwave and then shes in front of the silverware drawer. And-and if I send her out she gets mad at me. Thats when I have really a really bad time.
Making a bad day worse Escalating chaos See also, Arthur Frank (1995): The Chaos Nar-rative Comparing responses to bad days: Marty Dealing with bad days Were [a friend who has multiple sclerosis] kind of like mutual supporters for each
other. And when she has her bad days or when we particularly feel poor me, you know, Get off your butt! You know, we can be really pushy to each other and understand it. Reciprocal supporting Having bad days Disallowing selfpity Issuing reciprocal orders
Taking the criticism Realizing that once bad days have become good daysJohn What used to be bad days [laughing] now are good days but the quality of things, I think, is declining, you know, from , say a couple of years ago when I didnt think about it that much. And there would be isolated days when I had a lot of congestion and things
like that. But thats all. Shifting criteria of good and bad days Defining declining health Comparing past and present Eventually, new data . . . add little to the development of new descriptive categories. At this point, the categories are considered
saturated. The researcher then reviews the theoretical memoranda and conceptualizes higher level (more abstract) generalizations that subsume the initial set of categories yet are grounded in them. P. 282 Memoranda Memos are notes the researcher writes throughout the research process to elaborate on ideas about the data and the coded categories. In memos, the researcher explores hunches, ideas, and thoughts, and
then takes them apart, always searching for the broader explanations at work in the process. Educational Research 2e: Creswell The grounded theory generated in this manner reflects the researchers development of categories of meaning and the relationships she perceives among them. It should also provide some explanation for those relationships. Usually not higher-order theory, but midlevel theory
One test of the theory is to have the interviewees react to it. Does it make sense to them? Do they think it reflects the world as they see it? The theory developed through this method should be compared to the scholarly literature to see how it fits within the field. Does it add, support, contradict? The researcher should provide his thoughts about how the grounded theory should be interpreted with regard to existing theory.
Write-up Write-up of a grounded theory study follows more of a narrative format than traditional quantitative research reports. While the concerns of the researcher that led to the study usually open the piece, they are often more closely tied to the researcher, personally, than in quantitative studies. The discussion of the scene to be studied is often quite detailed, while a theoretical literature review is limited or absence. The
methods and results are more integrated and the author will often discuss the evolution of her thinking over time, tying it to particular findings in narrative format over time. Evidence is often provided in direct quotes and examples, and the development of the researchers thinking over time is commonly revealed. The latter portion may discuss a comparison of the grounded theory with existing theory to a greater extent than is often the case.
Write-up and presentation Provide a detailed description of the data collection methods Describe the subjects and context carefully Evaluating a grounded theory study Does the researcher gather extensive data so as to develop a detailed conceptual theory as well saturated in the data? Does the model emerge through phases of coding? (e.g. initial codes to more theoretically oriented codes or open coding
to axial coding to selective coding)? Educational Research 2e: Creswell Does the study show how the researcher validated the evolving theory by comparing it to the data, examining how the theory supports or refutes existing theories in the literature, or checking theory with participants? Creswell
Evaluating a grounded theory study Is there an obvious connection between the categories and the raw data? Is the theory useful as a conceptual explanation for the process being studied? Does the theory provide a relevant explanation of actual problems and a basic process? Can the theory be modified as conditions change or further data are gathered? Educational Research 2e: Creswell
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