Anaerobic Soil Sterilization for Managing Soil-Borne ...

Anaerobic Soil Sterilization for Managing Soil-Borne ...

Verticillium Wilt Management for Organic Strawberry Joji Muramoto1, Steven Koike2 and Carol Shennan1 Univ. of California, Santa Cruz 2 Univ. of California, Cooperative Extension, Monterey County 1 Outline 1. What is Verticillium Wilt? 2. Management for organic strawberries: crop rotations 3. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) 4. Goals of the two projects What is Verticillium Wilt? (1) Well-known disease that affects over 300 plant species throughout the world Susceptible crops in CA:

Fruit crops; avocado, caneberry, grape, olive, pistachio, apricot, nectarine, peach, strawberry Field crops; alfalfa, cotton Vegetables; artichoke, some cole crops, cucurbits, eggplant, lettuce, pepper, potato, spinach, tomato Ornamental plants; chrysanthemum, geranium, gerbera, marigold, snapdragon, stock, maple tree Over 100 weed species also host this disease What is Verticillium Wilt? (2) Symptoms in strawberry: poor growth, wilting, and dieback of foliage Can be accentuated by stress from environmental extremes, delayed irrigation, or the bearing of a heavy fruit load Similar symptoms with Fusarium wilt and charcoal rot..need laboratory analysis for

confirmation Verticillium Wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae What is Verticillium Wilt? (3) Causal agent: the fungus Verticillium dahliae Survives in the soil and on crop residues as tiny, dormant structures (microsclerotia) for 8 to 10 years without host crops Disease is enhanced at temperatures between 68 and 78 F (cool to moderate weather) Management for Organic Strawberry Preventive measures!! Very few options if Verticillium wilt starts to occur

Avoid infested fields Choose good crop rotation Reduce plant stress Avoid bringing Verticillium into fields Integrate all! Management for Organic Strawberry Preventive measures!! Very few options if Verticillium wilt starts to occur

Avoid infested fields Choose good crop rotation Reduce plant stress Avoid bringing Verticillium into fields Integrate all! Sites to Avoid (Site Selection)

Frequently planted to berries Known problems with diseases Established pathogen populations Lettuce fields with Vert. problems Pathogen pressure from adjacent sites Poor soil and water factors: poorly draining, heavy, or shallow soils; high soil/water salinity; low fertility soils Crop Rotation for Strawberry Common method to avoid soil-borne diseases in strawberries worldwide - 20-30% of strawberries in the world are produced by rotation-based IPM approach without using chemical fumigation - Minimum of a 3-year break between two

strawberry plantings in EU and Northeast US and Canada Crop Rotation for Organic Strawberry Mandatory by USDA National Organic Program (NOP) Avoid host crops for 3 to 5 years between two strawberry crops Keep record of crop history for each field Host Crops vs. Non-host Crops Host crops caneberry (raspberry, blueberry, blackberry etc), artichoke, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, cabbage, pepper, potato, spinach, tomato Non-host crops

cauliflower*, celery, parsley, radicchio, onion, bean, pea, carrot, sweet potato, asparagus * host different strain of Verticillium from one that is hosted by strawberry Suppressive crop broccoli Good Rotation or Bad Rotation? Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5

Strawberry Potato Strawberry Pepper Strawberry Strawberry Sweet potato Tomato Spinach Lettuce Strawberry

Strawberry Spinach Broccoli Cauliflower Broccoli Cabbage Lettuce Strawberry Strawberry Lettuce Broccoli Onion Carrot Strawberry

Strawberry Bean Carrot Broccoli Strawberry Good Rotation or Bad Rotation? Year 1 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Strawberry Potato

Strawberry Pepper Strawberry Strawberry Sweet potato Tomato Spinach Lettuce Strawberry Strawberry Spinach

Broccoli Cauliflower Broccoli Cabbage Lettuce Strawberry Strawberry Lettuce Broccoli Onion Carrot Strawberry Strawberry Bean

Carrot Broccoli Strawberry Host Year 2 Non-Host Suppressive Good Rotation or Bad Rotation? Year 1

Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Strawberry Potato Strawberry Pepper Strawberry Strawberry Sweet potato Tomato

Spinach Lettuce Strawberry Strawberry Spinach Broccoli Cauliflower Broccoli Cabbage Lettuce Strawberry Too Strawberry Lettuce Broccoli

Onion Carrot Strawberry Strawberry Bean Carrot Broccoli Strawberry Host Year 2

Non-Host Suppressive BAD BAD many Brassicas Maybe Okay Good Outbreak of Verticillium wilt + Phytophthora root rot at CASFS farm in 2001 and 2002 Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for suppressing Verticillium dahliae in

CA strawberries C. Shennan1, J. Muramoto1,, M. Bolda4, S. T. Koike4, O. Daugovish4, M. Mochizuki4, K. Klonsky5, E. Rosskopf3, N. K. Burelle3 , D. Butler2,3 , S. Fenimore5 and J. Samtani5 Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, 2 Univ. Tennessee 3 USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Lab, Florida, 4 Univ. of California Cooperative Extension 5 Univ. of California, Davis 1 Funded by USDA-CSREES MBTP 2007-51102-03854 and CA Strawberry Commission

ASD: Background Developed as alternative to Methyl bromide fumigation in Netherlands (Blok et al., 2000; Doug et al., 2004) and Japan (Shinmura & Sakamoto, 1998; Shinmura, 2000, 2004) Controls range of soilborne pathogens and nematodes across a range of crops In Japan, used by hundreds of farmers in greenhouse production (small scale) ASD: some target Pests and Crops

Soil-borne pathogens Nematode Meloidogyne incognita1 Pratylenchus fallax2

Weed 1: Verticillium dahliae1,2,4 Fusarium oxysporum1,2 Fusarium redolens2 Ralstonia solanacearum2 Rhizoctonia solani1 Sclerotium rolsfii3 Nutsedge3 Dutch studies

2 Crops tested Welsh onion2 Tomatoes2 Strawberries2,4 Eggplant2, 3 Spinach2 Peppers3 Maple1 Catalpa1 : Japanese studies 3 : Florida studies

4 ASD: Mechanisms Accumulation of toxic products from anaerobic decomposition (e.g. organic acids, volatiles) Biocontrol by anaerobic microorganisms Low pH Lack of oxygen Toxicity of Fe2+ and Mn2+ Combination of all of these Findings to date: 1.

1. Can get consistently good V. dahliae suppression - 80 to 100% 2. 2. Good yields obtained 1. 2. 3. Ventura 2011 75% increase yield over UTC Castroville 2011- as good or better than pichlor Watsonville 2011 equal to pichlor and steam 3. 3. Standard tarp appears as effective as TIF and VIF (from pot and field studies)

4. 4. Limited weed control (use opaque plastic) FIVE STEPS FOR RICE BRAN-BASED ASD Step 1: Planning (When? Where?) Step 2: Rice bran application & incorporation Step 3: Drip tapes and plastic mulch application Step 4: Drip irrigation Step 5 : Monitoring anaerobic decomposition

WHEN? THE WARMEST TIME OF THE YEAR NEEDS > 65 F AT 6 SOIL DEPTH AT LEAST DURING THE FIRST WEEK OF THE ASD TREATMENT WHERE? FIELDS RECENTLY PLANTED WITH A HOST CROP FIELD WITH KNOWN DISEASE PRESSURE Good Rotation or Bad Rotation? Year 1

Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Strawberry Potato Strawberry Pepper Strawberry Strawberry Sweet

potato Tomato Spinach Lettuce Strawberry Lettuce Broccoli Onion Carrot Strawberry Strawberry Bean

Carrot Broccoli Strawberry Strawberry Spinach Broccoli Host Non-Host BAD A Strawberry BAD S

D Cauliflower Broccoli Strawberry Too many Cabbage Lettuce Brassicas Suppressive Maybe Okay Good STEP 2: RICE BRAN APPLICATION & INCORPORATION (OPTION 1)

Rice Bran: 9 tons/acre Broadcast with a manure spreader, then incorporate with a rototiller RICE BRAN INCORPORATION AFTER BROADCASTING Best: Rototiller (~6 depth. Uniform incorporation)

Okay: Pulling discs from multiple directions ? Maybe not good: Chisel (drop carbon sources to deep layer, uneven mixing) STEP 2: RICE BRAN APPLICATION & INCORPORATION (OPTION 2) Rice Bran: 9 tons/acre Bed-top application with a special spreader, then incorporate with a bed shaper-attached rototiller

Concentrate rice bran to bed area STEP 3: DRIP TAPES AND PLASTIC MULCH APPLICATION DRIP TAPES 2 lines per 48- 52 center-tocenter bed 2 to 3 lines per 64 center-tocenter bed Either

low flow or high flow tapes worked fine PLASTIC MULCH Regular opaque plastic mulch works fine (e.g. 1.25 mil green polyethylene film) TIF, VIF did not make difference Clear mulch..increase soil temp but allow weeds to grow

Works in warmer regions (e.g. Central valley in CA, Ventura, Florida) PLASTIC MULCH Make it air tight as much as possible! Duct tape for any rips and major holes Bury edge of tarp STEP 4: DRIP IRRIGATION DRIP IRRIGATION

First irrigation: saturate the bed soil w/ 1 (sandy soil) to 2 acre-inches (clayey soil) of drip irrigation Ideally within 48 hours from bed listing (option 1) or rice bran incorporation (option 2) to avoid loosing the carbon source by aerobic decomposition .the sooner, the better! ~5 acre block at a time

Do not collapse beds (sandy soil) FIRST IRRIGATION MBA 52 site (Sandy loam) center-to-center bed width 2 lines of high flow tapes (0.67 Gallons/min/100 feet) 4.5 Hours, 1.4 acre-inches Bed partially collapsed

FIRST IRRIGATION Castroville 48 site (Clayloam) center-to-center bed width 2 lines of low flow tapes (0.33 Gallons/min/100 feet) 10 Hours, 1.6 acre-inches Bed never collapsed DRIP IRRIGATION After the first irrigation, maintain above the field capacity for three

weeks with intermittent irrigation Total irrigation rate: ~3 acre-inches for the 3 week period including the first irrigation STEP 5: MONITORING ANAEROBIC DECOMPOSITION MONITORING ANAEROBIC DECOMPOSITION ORP sensor

Measure degree of anaerobisis Eh mV Sensor $80-100 Handheld pH/mV meter $200-400 > 50,000 cum EhmV hrs (under 200 mV threshold) MONITORING ANAEROBIC DECOMPOSITION Odor (smell) Within

a week unpleasant smell of anaerobic decomposition in the field Take a core of soil and smell Soil core sampler Clay soil has less odor OTHER C-SOURCES? Molasses (liquid) Grape pomace (skin and seeds) ~$180/ton Summer cover crop Sudan grass, buckwheat Mustard seed meal 1% ethanol (developed in Japan) ~$400/ton Combinations

Remaining questions 1. Does ASD effectively control other soil pathogens like Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum? 2. Integration with other practices?....ASD should be a part of crop rotation, ASD + mustard meal 3. Mechanisms?.....for better integration with other non-chemical options 4. What is the environmental impacts of ASD? Trials at ALBA 4-year rotation trial with Rigoberto Bucio

2011-2014 (Broccoli-Lettuce-BroccoliStrawberry) ASD, Varying N management Evaluate yields, diseases, weeds, economics, N dynamics, Carbon footprint Demonstration trial 2012-2013 (broccoli/cauliflower/fallowstrawberries-lettuce) ASD, Mustard seed meal (MM), ASD+MM, Untreated check

Cal CORE Network 2011-2015 Project Goals Expand and strengthen a research-extensionfarmer network for organic production on central coastal California and beyond: Build our research-extension-farmer network Implement integrated on-farm experiments in Santa Cruz, Monterey and Santa Barbara Counties; Enable Spanish-speaking growers to participate in network meetings, management of on-farm trials, and workshops Organize workshops and field days Develop printed educational tools, webinars and online educational resources for nationwide outreach using

eOrganic.info. Project Goals Evaluate performance of crop rotations and management strategies designed to meet the combined goals of high yields, reduced disease levels, provision of adequate N with minimal environmental impacts and improved Csequestration Participants Project leaders: 4 Carol Shennan (Project Director, UCSC), Joji Muramoto (UCSC), Alexander Gershenson (San Jose State Univ.), and Karen Klonsky (UC Davis) Project staff: 5 (UCSC) Collaborators research and extension:

11 (UCCE, CSUMB, USDA-ARS, CDFA, Univ. of New Hampshire, Oregon State Univ.) Farmer collaborators: 16 NGO collaborators: 3 Industry collaborators: 3 Total: Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties Mother baby trials Compare 4 versus 2 year vegetable/strawberry rotations on: yield, weed and disease suppression soil N, nitrate leaching, denitrification C sequestration, methane and carbon dioxide emissions economics of production

Test effectiveness of mustard seed meal for N fertility supply and weed and disease suppression Compare Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) mustard seed meal and non-host Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Treatmen t Fall 2011

Winter Summer 2012 Fall 2012 Winter Summer 2013 Fall 2013 Winter

Summer 2014 Fall 2014 Winter Summer 2015 1a cc cc V-B

cc cc V L+C cc cc V-B asd S+ S+

2a cc cc+c+f V-B cc cc+c+f V L+C cc cc+c+f

V-B asd + c S+ S+ 3a cc* cc+mc V-B cc

cc+mc V L+C cc* cc+mc V-B mc S+ S+ 4a

bf bf V-B bf bf V L+C bf bf V-B

S S 5 Growers standard V-B Growers standard V L+C Growers standard S

S V-B Growers standard Baby trial treatments Experimental Design Fertility/disease control treatments: (i) Cover crop + ASD ----- moderate fertility (ii) Cover crop + compost/feathermeal +ASD -----high fertility (iii) Cover crop + mustard seed meal -------- high fertility (iv) Untreated control -------- low fertility (v) Growers standard Vegetable crops: VB= broccoli; V L+C =Lettuce +

Cauliflower Mother-Baby Trials 70 linear miles in 4 counties Mother-Baby Trials Baby SBF 1 Mother UCSC Baby HGO2 Baby LEF 3 Baby CAS4

Baby COKE5 Baby ALBA6 70 linear miles in 4 counties Mother/Baby Trial Sites (Total: 3.91 acre) Trial (acre) Farm Location Manager /Contact

Soil type Soil order Mother (0.40A) CASFS-UCSC Santa Cruz Darryl Wong Elkhorn sandy loam Mollisols

Baby-1 (0.65A) Swanton Berry Davenport Farm Tim Campion Colma sandy loam/Tierra loam Mollisols /Alfisols Baby-2 (0.59A)

High Ground Organics Watsonville Steve Pedersen Tierra/Watsonville Alfisols complex /Mollisols Baby-3 (0.58A) Live Earth Farm

Watsonville Tom Broz Baby-4 (0.65A) Cassidy Ranch Watsonville Baby-5 (0.51A) Coke Farm Baby-6 (0.54A)

ALBA Organic since (yrs as of 2011) 19 (40+) 2003 (8 years) 1996 (15 years) Elder sandy loam /Soquel loam Dan Balbas / Salinas clay loam Dick Peixoto

Mollisols 1998 (13 years) Mollisols 2004 (7 years) San Juan Bautista Dale Coke Hanford coarse sandy loam

Entisols 1996 (15 years) Salinas Nathan Harkleroad Hanford gravelly sandy loam Entisols 1991 (20 years)

Mother trial - CASFS UCSC Mother Trial (UCSC Farm. 37 years of organic management 64 plots) Baby-1 (Swanton Berry Farm. 8 yrs of organic mgmt) Baby-2 (High Ground Organics. 15 yrs of organic mgmt) Baby-3 (Live Earth Farm. 13 yrs of organic mgmt) Baby-4 (Cassidy Ranch. 7 yrs of organic mgmt) Baby-5 (Coke Farm. 15 yrs of organic mgmt) Baby-6 (ALBA. 20 yrs of organic mgmt)

Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge funding for this work from the following: USDA NIFA OREI Award # 2011-51300-30677 USDA NIFA MBTP Award # 2012-51102-20294 USDA WSARE Award # SW11-116 Organic Farming Research Foundation And the many growers, extension and industry people who have made this work possible

Gary Tanimura, Glenn Noma, Tanimura and Antle Fresh Foods Inc. Liz Mirazzo, Andy Webster of CASFS, UCSC Luis Rodriguez, Patti Wallace, Mike nelson, Plant Science inc. K. Kammeijer, L. Murphy, P. Ayala, UCCE Lab assistants, interns, and volunteers of the Shennan lab, UCSC Questions? Joji Muramoto [email protected]

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