American Indian Cultural Communications

American Indian Cultural Communications

Arctic Operations Tribal & Cultural Engagement Version AS-13 v-3 8/1/13 Sudie Hargis D17 Tribal Liaison 1 CG Arctic Mission Why do we conduct missions in the arctic? Related Missions Engagement & Outreach Environmental Protection

Maritime Commerce Search & Rescue Law Enforcement National Security Research/National Policy Issues Expansion of All Missions What do they mean? A Short Historical Perspective 2 Major Alaska Native Ethnic Groups Eleven Distinct Cultures Inupiaq/St Lawrence Yupik Yupik/Cupik Unangax (Aleut)/Alutiiq Athabascan Eyak/Tlingit/Haida/Tsimshian Over 22 Indigenous Dialects Differences in Continental/Ethnic Origins Differences in Regions/Subsistence Methods 229 Federally Recognized Tribes (1934 Indian Reorganization Act) 3 The Coast Guard Mission in Alaska: A Legacy and Part of Alaskan History Corwin and Bear

Humanitarian Aid: Reindeer imported from Siberia to Alaska 1892 (Capt Mike Healy): Herds grew to 500K by 1941 -stable food supply **Impact of seal & whale hunting Ice Rescue: 1897-1898: Overland Relief Expedition -- Eight whaling ships caught in arctic ice: 382 reindeer with sled dogs 1500+ miles through blizzards to Pt. Barrow (3 months) Federal Presence in Alaska: Revenue Cutter Service was Judge, Doctor, Policeman Note our history/reputation is mixed! 4 Alaska Territorial Guard Eskimo Scouts Organized WWII in response to Hawaii/Japan Component of US Army 1942-1947 Missions:

Detected Japanese Incursions Placed & Maintained Survival Caches Safeguarded Platinum Secured Lend-Lease US/USSR air route US sent over $11 Billion in supplies to Russia Supplies by air, boat, dog team 107 Communities/20,000 Personnel (Ages 12-80) Aleut, Athabascan, Inupiaq, Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian, & Yupik Key to integration of US military Recognized in 2000 as U.S. Military Veterans 5 Alaska The Great Land Resource Extraction = Driver for CG/Federal Presence Alaska Purchase: 1867

U.S. Laws not extended to Alaska purchase. American Indian Law not applied to Alaska Natives Alaska: Military District Gold Discovery: 1880 Alaska Seafood: 1885 $$$ Trillions in minerals, oil, and gas USRC Rush, Sitka, AK 2011: Alaska = 209 Million barrels (10% of total U.S.) 6 Federal Indian Policy/Philosophy

Treaty Making Era 1778-1871 >20 Treaties = Recognition of Sovereignty The Removal Era 1830-1850 The Reservation Era 1850-1871 Allotments Assimilation 1887-1934 U.S. Citizenship 1924 Indian Reorganization Act 1934 The Termination Era 1953-1968 The Self-Determination Era1968-Present Mandate for Federal G-2-G 2000-Present

Domestic Dependent Nations 7 Key Alaska Native Legislation 1906: Alaska Native Allotment Act 1924: American Citizenship American Indians and Alaska Natives 1934: Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) Authorizes Land Parcels for Alaska Natives up to 160 acres/person Recognizes aboriginal land rights for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Establishes Federally recognized tribes

1935: Jurisdictional Act Allows Indians and Alaska Natives to file court claims for aboriginal land. Tlingit & Haida Tribes claimed all of Southeast Alaska 8 Alaska 1959-70 Supreme Court Upholds 1935 Tlingit Land Claim State Public land selections Some on Native lands Result: Court-ordered Land Freeze Black Gold! 1969 All Create Strong Need for Resolution of Issue 9

Resolution: Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) 1971 44 Million Acres/$963 Million Settlement Driven by Alaska Federation of Natives Extinguishes Native Land and Subsistence Claims (except Metlakatla, 1888) 13 Regional Corporations 12 Regional Non-Profit Associations for social services 200+ Village Corporations 10 Native Governance & Consultation: Tribal Consultation is a Mandate -- Executive Order 13175 (2000)

Recognize Tribal Sovereignty Mandate for federal agency consultation on matters that may impactTribal rights, resources, or interests 229 Federally Recognized Tribes in Alaska President/Chief Have Official Government Status D17 Engagement/Consultation 11 Consultation and Tribal Impacts : What Might Be Triggers? Air Ops Vessel Ops Shore/Cleanup Ops Wildlife Disturbance

Sacred Sites Restaurants & Driving Village Presence Phone Conversations 12 U.S. Coast Guard Consultation and Engagement With Tribes and Alaska Native Organizations In Support of CG Missions Statewide Ongoing Meetings/briefings: Listen/Engage/Respond Cross-Cultural training for all CG personnel deployed to Arctic Tribes Alaska Native Organizations

Local Governments Developing Training for all CG personnel in Alaska Rear Admiral Ostebo (CGD17 Commander) & Continuing to focus on tribal Vice Admiral Zukunft engagement & collaboration statewide (Pacific Area Commander) at Alaska Eskimo Whaling Working to identify gaps in Commission Meeting in Pt Hope connections with tribes 13 D17 Tribal Engagement & Consultation Actively Engage Visit Tribal Council office when CG Ops/TAD to a village

CG Operations Vessel/Facility Inspections Spill Response & Planning Aids to Navigation Auxiliary Ops Notify D17 Tribal Liaison of Tribal interactions Email/Opsum POC Info/Date Concerns/Issues 14 Complexity of Consultation/Engagement Example: Point Hope, Alaska

Native Village of Point Hope (IRA Tribe) Governs; does not hold land Inupiat Community of Arctic Slope (ICAS) (IRA Tribe) Tikigaq Corporation (ANCSA Village Corp) Holds surface land rights Arctic Slope Reg. Corp. (ANCSA Regional Corp) Holds subsurface land rights (gravel, oil, gold, coal) North Slope Borough (State/Municipal: Barrow) Provides services to Point Hope residents City of Point Hope (2nd class city/state chartered) Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission: 1977 (10 Villages) Alaska Walrus Commission: 1978 (19 Villages: Nome) 15 Arctic Operations (Significant CG focus area in 2013) Ops Summary: H-60 Jayhawk Two Icebreakers WPB Patrol Boat

Natl Security Cutter with H-65 Helo WLB Buoy Tender Flag Outreach: Mar Oct SONS Oil Spill TTX: June Mass Rescue (MRO) TTX WLB Towex/VOSS: Jul WPB L/E & Educ Ops: Jul Icebreaker Ops: Jul Sep R&D Center Ops: Sep NSC Ops: Sep Aviation Ops: Jul & Sep VIP Visits: Aug Community Svc: Feb Aug Tribal Issues: CG effort to reduce subsistence impacts

CG effort to communicate with tribes during season 16 U.S. Coast Guard Respect for Subsistence Marine Mammal & Caribou Tracking Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission Carcass Survey Response to issues & complaints Penthrite (Not in 2013) Bowhead Whale Hunt Avoidance Eskimo Walrus Commission

Satellite Tracking Sites Caribou & Helicopters in Arctic operations Tracking info from: Tribes NSB-DWM City of Nome NW Arctic Borough State of Alaska Federal Agencies 17 Whaling: Inupiat/Yupik Cultures Harvest Quotas Bowhead Science Whaling Captains:

Umialik = Leader/Chief Whaling Crews Who Gets the Whale? Distribution of Meat Generosity/Community Food/Survival 18 Overall Bowhead/Cutter Op Issues Do not operate in sensitive or migration/hunt areas unless SAR or other special operation/ necessity: Identified in EA, Oporder, and Wildlife Management maps. Specific permission is needed to operate in Bowhead quiet zones or other critical areas.

Verify changing marine mammal locations and issues with local Wildlife Management representatives from North Slope Borough and Tribes. 19 Walrus Issues: Aviation & Cutters May - Sept: Mothers with Calves Haul-out Areas Along Coastline Point Lay/Icy Cape (Up to 10,000 walruses) Impact of Aircraft Ops: Low Visibility for Aircraft? If still pregnant: walrus will abort fetus Calves can drown or be crushed

Fly inland Walrus Ahead? No sudden flight/course changes Increase distance Maintain 1500 ft when possible Everyone Onboard is Responsible 20 21 Polar Bear Issues: Aviation Critical Resting Areas: Sea Ice & Barrier Islands Circling/Hovering Causes Distress Distressed Bears may become Weaker and Drown More bears onshore Air Ops: See bears? Do

NOT approach Observe signs of distress 22 Polar Bear Issues: On-Shore Polar Bears On-Shore resting / scavenging Polar Bears are faster than YOU Safety Guidelines: Always Use a Buddy System Away from Town Do NOT go Running Near Shore Berm NEVER Approach a Polar Bear Move Away or to a Vehicle if bear nearby Contact NSB-DWM to Report Sightings 23 Critical Bird Issues

Threatened and endangered bird species gather in pack ice to overwinter and molt Birds cannot fly during molting process Vessels can kill birds that cannot fly Primary molting areas: Eastern Norton Sound Ledyard Bay Over 80,000 Spectacled Eiders in pack ice near St. Lawrence Island (Cape Lisburne to Point Lay) 24 Caribou Issues: Aviation

Caribou calving and feeding areas Noise/Disturbance Drives them from their feeding areas Caribou Mosquito Avoidance Herds Low-Flying Aircraft can spark stampedes Caribou may crush young animals Air Ops: Maintain 1500 ft When Possible See Caribou? Increase Altitude and Distance Everyone is Responsible 25 General Subsistence Hunting Issues June October is Primary Hunting Season Alaska Natives Depend on Subsistence Foods Do NOT Compete with Subsistence Most land is owned by corporations and Tribes, and not open for hunting without specific

permission CG Operations Can Disrupt Alaska Native Hunting of Caribou, Moose, Seals, and Walruses Please Be Respectful of Subsistence Hunting and Activities 26 Marine Mammal Reporting If You See It Please Report It! Dead whale? Seal? Walrus? Take photos/Record location North of Pt. Hope: NSB Dept. of Wild. Management (Barrow) (907) 852-0350 South of Pt. Hope: UAF - Marine Advisory Program (Nome) (907) 443-2397 [email protected] 2012: Unusual Mortality Event CG Carcass Survey Support

27 More Than Subsistence Its a Cultural Existence Lives are connected to the land and sea Subsistence is what binds the culture Fears: Increased Arctic activity will lead to spills Spills lead to lost food resources/no easy backup Increased shipping = collisions, groundings, etc. Govt response capabilities appear inadequate Not enough CG infrastructure present Western World cultural impacts Erosion of traditional knowledge 28 Cultural/Foundational Values Alaska Native Values:

Coast Guard Values: Honor Show Respect to Others Integrity Each person has a special gift Ethical Conduct Share What You Have Moral Behavior Giving makes you richer Loyalty Know Who You Are Accountable to the Public Trust

You are a reflection on your family Respect Accept What Life Brings We Value our Diverse Workforce You cannot control many things Fairness Have Patience Dignity Some things cannot be rushed Compassion Live Carefully Individual Opportunity and Growth What you do will come back to you Teamwork Take Care of Others Devotion to Duty You cannot live without them We are Professionals Honor Your Elder

Achievement of CG Goals They show you the way in life Responsible Pray for Guidance Accept Accountability Many things are not known We Exist to Serve See Connections We Serve With Pride All things are related 29 Cultural Differences (Differences in operating paradigms) Alaska Native Worldview:

Group Emphasis Present and Past Orientation Time: Always With Us Age Cooperation Harmony with Nature Giving - Sharing Pragmatic Mystical Patience Listening Skills learned first Religion: A Way of Life Should appear modest Oral Use of land A Western Worldview:

Individual Emphasis Future Orientation Time - Use Every Minute Youth Competition Mastery of Nature Owning Saving Theoretical Skeptical Assertiveness Verbal Skills learned first Religion: Segment of Life Put best foot forward Written Ownership of land *Note these are generalizations for training discussions 30 Helpful Hints Chief, President, Council Chair Respect Elders Engage when invited &

Relax with Discomfort Listen & Leave Gaps Silence is Okay! Respect Traditional Knowledge Talking Speed Front Row Seats Slow Down Are For Elders Teaching & Engaging Are Important! Acronyms Include Food Remember History is a Long Time! This is Hunting & Gathering Season Community Relations Issues

Alaska Villages generally welcome us We are CG representatives ALL THE TIME Non-verbal cues speak volumes. Be respectful -- realize that we have little understanding of their culture and the reason they do particular things. They have survived for thousands of years in this environment most of us cant do that! Dont be afraid, just be good neighbors! Please Be Role Models for the CG 32 Alcohol Issues A lot of Alaska villages have to deal with alcohol issues Please support their efforts Most villages are Damp or Dry Alcohol Importation is Illegal

Alcohol is Not Allowed Possession is Only Legal With a Permit in Barrow and other villages Do NOT Drink To/From TAD Trips Please Be Part of the Solution We Are Community Role Models 33 Barrow/Ukpeagvik Where the Owls are Hunted Barrow (725 Miles North of Anchorage) Average Temp: 40 degrees in Summer -- below freezing 324 days/ year Population: 4400 Inupiat Eskimo Whaling/Subsistence Culture Remote (4 restaurants) Difficulty Factor x3 for just about everything! Significant Issues:

High Food cost (107% more than Anchorage) Subsistence resources: summer hunting/gathering season Water & Sewage treatment 34 Nome Community Information Population: ~ 3500 Region occupied for thousands of years. Multicultural community Hub transportation for >19 regional coastal communities Gold seekers since the late 1800s a very different culture from most Arctic villages. 40% of population is Non-Native Arctic science projects / opportunities 35 Kotzebue

Kotzebue (549 M NW of Anchorage 26 M N of Arctic Circle Pop 3154 (741 students), 3 mile long spit Inupiat Eskimo Significant Issues: High electric costs (> $.50/kWh 3x higher than Anch) Wind farm saves $120,000 in annual fuel costs (17 turbines) Subsistence resources: summer hunting/gathering season Water Sewage treatment Fuel costs (Gas 177% higher/propane 193% higher) Food cost (107% more than Anch) 36 Alaska Villages

Point Hope (Tikeraq -- 330 M SW of Barrow) Koyuk (90 M NE of Nome) Pop 358 (102 students), habitation 6000-8000 yrs(nomadic) Gold/coal mining support Unalit/Malemiut Eskimo Wales (111 M NW of Nome) Pop 713 (208 students), water from lake 6m/$.50 kWh elex One of oldest continuous Inupiat areas in AK (2500 yrs) Whaling/mammals/Tribe historically controlled area Tikeraqmuit Inupiat Eskimos

Pop 148 (33 school students) Whaling, reindeer station, influenza loss Kinugmiut Eskimo Selawik (90 M E of Kotz) Pop 849 (264 school students) Inupiat Eskimo 37 Alaska Villages (Continued) Shishmaref (126 M N of Nome) Kivalina (80 M NW of Kotz): Inupiat Eskimo

Pop 410 (122 students), water from 3 M/30 gal/day limit Stopover Arctic/Kotz travelers Bowhead whales Diomede (135 M NW of Nome) Pop 606 (180 students) 5 miles fm mainland, water hauling/honey buckets Supply center for gold miners Erosion; village relocation Pop 117 (32 students), spring water (runs out March); honeybuckets Whaling, polar bear hunting, seal/walrus Inagalikmiut Eskimo Shaktoolik (125 M E of Nome) Pop 231 (59 students); water 3 M/piped system Subsistence, reindeer (old) Malemiut Eskimo 38 General Village Info

Populations: ~ 100 5000 maximum Arctic has been occupied by Alaska Natives for thousands of years. Arctic communities are different from each other some based on whaling, others on walrus, others on reindeer herding or inland fishing and hunting, etc. Check village characteristics on State of Alaska website: Check local Tribal/Community websites. If doing community projects, pick small projects or do stages of a project so we can accomplish what we start! The D17 Tribal Liaison is a resource for information 39 Things to Remember Cultural Responsiveness First and Foremost Tribes and community members have a wide range of concerns ask, dont guess

Community members can offer suggestions Remember history is a long time On Duty 24/7: NO hidden times or places Have fun and learn about their culture they usually like to share traditional knowledge If in doubt, ASK! 40 Training Feedback Is this training useful? Is it engaging? Would you recommend it to others? Do you have recommended changes to

add/delete? Please send feedback to D17 Tribal Liaison: [email protected] Thanks! 41 U.S. Coast Guard Points of Contact 17th District Commander: Rear Admiral Tom Ostebo 17th District Chief of Staff: Captain Jack Vogt Coast Guard D17 Tribal Liaison: Sudie Hargis [email protected] Office: 907-463-2034 Cell: 907-321-8300 42

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