America Claims An Empire

America Claims An Empire

AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE CHAPTER 10 IMPERIALISM AND AMERICA American Expansionism Americans sought to increase the size of their nation wanted to establish colonies overseas. IMPERIALISM the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories. Imperialism was already a trend around the

world. GLOBAL COMPETITION Imperialism Africa taken over by Europeans Imperialists competed over territory in Asia, especially in

China. Japan formed a strong central govt. and joined in the competition for China in the 1890s. 3 FACTORS FUELED THE NEW AMERICAN IMPERIALISM 1.

Desire for military strength 2. Thirst for new markets 3. Belief in cultural superiority DESIRE FOR MILITARY STRENGTH Alfred T. Mahan

Urged govt. officials to build up military naval power. Wanted to compete with other nations US built 9 steel hulled cruisers between 1883 and 1890.

THIRST FOR NEW MARKETS Factories were now producing more than Americans could consume. Americans wanted: Raw materials

New markets Imperialists viewed foreign trade as the solution to American over-production, unemployment, and economic depression. BELIEF IN CULTURAL SUPERIORITY Many Americans thought they were superior to other peoples because they were Anglo-Saxon. THE US

ACQUIR ES ALASKA William Seward oformer Secretary of State for Lincoln and Johnson. 1867 arranged for the US to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million. Some people thought it was silly Alaska was often called

Sewards Folly or Sewards Icebox TIME SHOWED HOW WRONG THEY WERE 1959 Alaska became a state Cost was about 2 cents per acre Land was rich in timber, minerals, and oil. Oil was not discovered until after the purchase. THE UNITED STATES

TAKES HAWAII 1867- The US took over the Midway Islands Lie in the pacific Ocean abt. 1300 miles north of Hawaii. Uninhabited HAWAII Mid 1900s of the islands wealth came from American owned sugar plantations. - laborers for plantations were imported from Japan, Portugal, and

China. 1900 foreigners and immigrant laborers outnumbered Hawaiians about 3 to 1. Hawaiian grown sugar was not charged a tariff by the US until the McKinley Tariff of 1890. American planters wanted the US to annex the islands to avoid the tax. 1887 the United States persuaded Hawaii to allow them to build a

naval base there. Pearl Harbor the kingdoms best port Became a refueling station for American ships THE END OF A MONARCHY 1887 King Kalakua was forced by white

business owners to amend the Hawaiian constitution. Amendment limited voting rights to wealthy landowners only. King Kalakua died and his sister Queen Liliuoklani came to power. She had only Hawaiians in mind

for her agenda and wanted to revise the constitution leaving the white businessmen out. Ambassador John L. Stevens organized a revolution. Queen Liliukalani REVOLUTION

was aided by marines The queen was overthrown and a government was set up headed by Sanford B. Dole President Cleveland directed that the queen be restored to her throne. Dole

refused to surrender Cleveland recognized the Republic of Hawaii Would not consider annexation unless a majority of Hawaiians favored it. 1897 McKinley became president August 12, 1898, Congress proclaimed Hawaii an American territory.

Hawaiians were never given the chance to vote 1959 Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States. ACQUIRING NEW LANDS RULING PUERTO RICO When Puerto Rico became part of the

U.S. Puerto Ricans feared that the U.S. would not give them the same freedom of self-rule they had under Spanish rule. LOUIS MUNOZ RIVERA -Puerto Rican statesman and publisher 1900-1916 lived primarily in the U.S. and worked for Puerto Ricos independence. Spoke to Congress May 5, 1916 He died Nov. 1916

Independence to Puerto Ricans was granted 3 months Not all Puerto Ricans wanted independence. Some wanted statehood. Military Rule

During the S/A War, U.S. forces, under direction of General Nelson A. Miles, occupied the island. Miles told Puerto Ricans that troops were there for protection. RETURN TO CIVIL GOVERNMENT The U.S. would control Puerto Rico until Congress decided otherwise.

Puerto Rico was strategically important to the U.S. For maintaining a U.S. presence in the Caribbean For protecting a U.S. canal that leaders wanted to build in the future. Foraker Act ended military rule in PR and set up a civil govt.

The act gave the president of the U.S. power to appoint members of Puerto Ricos governor and members of its upper house of legislature. Puerto Ricans could only appoint the lower house of legislature. Insular Cases Congress ruled that the Constitution did not apply to people in acquired territories.

Congress retained the right to extend citizenship CUBA AND THE UNITED STATES When the U.S. declared war on Spain in 1898, it recognized Cubas independence. Teller Amendment Stated

that the U.S. had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba. Treaty of Paris ended the war Guaranteed Cubas independence AMERICAN SOLDIERS Cuba was occupied by American soldiers when the war ended. The same officials who served Spain remained in office.

Cubans who protested this policy were imprisoned or exiled. AMERICAN MILITARY Provided food and clothing for families Helped farmers put land back into cultivation Organized

Helped elementary schools. eliminate yellow fever through improvement of sanitation and medical research. PLATT AMENDMENT 1900 Cuba wrote its own constitution for independence, leaving out the relationship between the U.S. and Cuba.

1901 U.S. demanded that several provisions be added to the constitution. These provisions were known as the Platt Amendment. Provisions were as follows: Cuba could not make treaties that might

limit its independence or permit a foreign power to control any part of its territory. The U.S. reserved the right to intervene in Cuba Cuba was not to go into debt that its government could not repay The U.S. could buy or lease land on the

The U.S. made it clear that troops would not withdraw from Cuba until the Platt Amendment was approved. Cubans marched in protest against the U.S. 1903 the Platt Amendment became part of the treaty between the two nations.

Remained in effect for 31 years. Cuba became a U.S. protectorate - a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power. PROTECTING AMERICAN BUSINESS INTERESTS The most important reason for the U.S. to maintain a strong political presence in Cuba was to protect American businesses that invested in the islands: Sugar Tobacco

Mining industries Railroads and public utilities Many business people were convinced that annexing and imposing colonial rule on new territories was necessary to protect American interests. Some were concerned about colonial entanglements.

Andrew Carnegie argued against the taking of nations as colonies. FILIPINOS REBEL Treaty of Paris Filipinos were outraged by the annexation of the Philippines by America. Emilio Aguinaldo

Rebel leader believed that the U.S. had promised independence. vowed to fight for freedom once they realized the terms of the treaty. PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR 2/1899 - the Filipinos rose in revolt with Aguinaldo as their leader.

U.S. imposed authority on them. Forced Filipinos to live in designated zones. Poor sanitation, disease, and starvation killed thousands. Just like Spain did with Cuba Americans looked on Filipinos as inferior Many of the troops sent to the Philippines were African Americans 70,000.

Many deserted to the Filipino side did not want racial prejudice. Took 3 years to put down the rebellion About 20,000 of them died fighting for independence. 4000 Americans died

Cost of war $400 million AFTERMATH OF THE WAR After the war the U.S. set up a govt. similar to the one Puerto Rico had. Philippines became an independent republic on July 4, 1946. FOREIGN INFLUENCE IN

CHINA U.S. saw the Philippines as a gateway to the rest of Asia. China was seen as a vast potential market for American products. Opportunity for railroad construction

China had been weakened by war and foreign intervention. Known as the sick man of Asia France, Germany, Britain, Japan, and Russia had established settlements along the coast. JOHN HAYS OPEN DOOR

1899 - U.S. Secretary of State John Hay issued a series of policy statements called the Open Door notes. The notes were letters addressed to the leaders of imperialist nations proposing that the nations share their trading rights with the United States, creating

an open door. No nation would have a monopoly on trade with any part of China. THE BOXER REBELLION IN CHINA Europeans dominated much of Chinas large cities.

Some Chinese formed secret societies Boxers most famous of these groups BOXERS Killed hundreds of missionaries and other foreigners. Chinese converts to Christianity

August 1900 troops from Britain, France, Germany, and Japan joined 2,500 American forces and marched on the Chinese capital. 2 months they put down the rebellion PROTECTING AMERICAN RIGHTS 2nd Series of Open Door notes was issued announcing that the U.S. would safeguard for the world the equal and

impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese empire. Paved the way for greater American influence in America. 2ND OPEN DOOR NOTES Reflected 3 American beliefs Growth of economy depended on exports Felt U.S. had to intervene abroad to keep

foreign markets open. Feared the closing of an area to American products, citizens, or ideas threatened U.S. survival. THE IMPACT OF U.S. TERRITORIAL GAINS under McKinley the U.S. had gained an empire. Anti-Imperial League sprang into being People

against imperialism Grover Cleveland, Jane Addams, Mark Twain AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER Teddy Roosevelt and the World Roosevelt was unwilling to allow the imperial powers of Europe to control the worlds political and economic destiny.

In 1905, Roosevelt mediated a settlement in a war between Russia and Japan. ROOSEVELT THE PEACEMAKER 1904 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia declared war on Japan. Russia and Japan were competing for

control of Korea. Japanese attack on the Russian Pacific fleet Japan destroyed a second fleet. Won a series of land battles securing Korea and Manchuria. Japan began to run out of men and money

They approached Roosevelt in secret and asked him to mediate peace negotiations. 1905 1st meeting Portsmouth, NH They negotiated and the Treaty of Portsmouth won the Nobel Peace Prize for Roosevelt in 1906

PANAMA CANAL Many Americans felt there should be a canal cutting through Central America. - would reduce travel time for military and commercial ships. - United States and Britain agreed to share the rights to the canal. 1901 Hay-Pauncefote Treaty - Britain gave the U.S. exclusive rights to build and control a canal through Central America. 2 possible routes were identified 1

through Nicaragua crossed a lake 1 through Panama shorter, but filled with mountains and swaps. A French company had attempted to build a canal through Panama and after 10 years they gave up. It sent an agent, Phillippe Bunau-Varilla to the U.S. to convince them to buy the claim.

The U.S. decided on the Panama route and purchased the area for $40 million. The U.S. had to get permission from Columbia which ruled Panama at that time. Negotiations broke down and BunauVarilla helped organized a rebellion against Columbia.

11/3/03 nearly a dozen U.S. warships were present as Panama declared its independence from Columbia. 15 days later, the U.S. and Panama signed a treaty in which the U.S. agreed to pay Panama $10 million plus an annual rent of $250,000 for an area of land across Panama Called the Canal Zone. Payments were to begin in 1913. CONSTRUCTING THE

CANAL construction of the Canal ranks as one of the worlds greatest engineering feats. Problems diseases malaria, yellow fever Soft volcanic soil difficult to work with

Work began in 1904 Employed 43,400 workers Many workers came from Italy and Spain, but were blacks from the British West Indies. More than 5,600 workers on the canal

died from accidents or disease. Total cost to the United States was about $380 million. Completed on 8/15/1914 U.S. Latin American relations were damaged because the U.S. supported the rebellion of Panama.

THE ROOSEVELT COROLLARY Roosevelt was determined to make the U.S. a dominate power in the Caribbean and Central America. He reminded European powers of the Monroe doctrine which demanded that European countries stay out of the affairs of Latin America.

Roosevelt Corollary added to the Monroe Doctrine Warned that disorder in Latin America would force the States to become an International police power. Also said that the U.S. would use force to protect economic interests in Latin America. DOLLAR DIPLOMACY

1911 rebellion broke out in Nicaragua Left the nation in bankruptcy Taft arranged for American bankers to loan Nicaragua enough money to pay its debts. Bankers could collect Nicaraguas custom duties Bankers also gained control of the

Nicaraguans state owned railroad and its national bank. Nicaraguans revolted and marines were sent to Nicaragua to put down the rebellion. Some marines stayed there until 1933. Dollar diplomacy policy of U.S. to

guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American businesspeople. WOODROW WILSONS MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY Said the U.S. had the right to deny recognition to any Latin American government it viewed as oppressive. Prior to this the U.S. recognized any government that controlled a nation, regardless of how it came to power.

THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION Porfirio Diaz Military dictator Ruled Mexico for about 30 years Friend of the U.S. 1911 Mexican peasants and workers led by Francisco Madero overthrew Diaz. Madero

promised reforms Unable to fix the gap and conflicts between classes 2 years later Gen. Victoriano Huerta took over the government. Madero was murdered Wilson refused to recognize a government of butchers

INTERVENTION IN MEXICO 1914 small group of American sailors were arrested. They were quickly released and Mexico apologized, but Wilson used the opportunity to intervene in Mexico. He ordered U.S. marines to occupy

Veracruz, an important Mexican port. 18 Americans and 200 Mexicans died during the invasion. Argentina, Brazil, and Chile stepped in to mediate the conflict. Proposed that Huerta step down U.S. withdraw without paying for damages. Mexico rejected the plan

U.S. refused to recognize Huerta Huerta regime eventually fell apart Venustiano Carranza Became president in 1915 U.S. recognized his government and withdrew troops.

EMILIANO ZAPATA Mexican rebel Opposed Carranza Dedicated to land reform.

REBELLION IN MEXICO Francisco Pancho Villa Mexican rebel Resented rule of Huerta Villa threatened

reprisals against the U.S. Took Americans off a mining train and shot them. CHASING VILLA Wilson ordered Gen. John J. Pershing and 15,000 soldiers into Mexico to capture Villa dead or alive. Villa still ran.

Wilson called out 150,000 National Guardsmen and stationed them along the Mexican border. Mexicans grew angry over the U.S. invasion of their land. 1916 U.S. troops clashed with Carranzas army

Carranza demanded U.S. withdrawal and Wilson refused. Both sides backed down. Wilson ordered troops home. Mexico adopted a constitution that gave

the govt. control of the nations oil and mineral resources. Placed strict regulations on foreign invasions Carranza ruled oppressively until 1920. ALVARO OBREGON Came to power after Carranza

Marked the end of civil war and beginning of Mexican reform. CONCLUSION Americans believed in the superiority of free-enterprise democracy. The American govt. attempted to extend its reach of this economic and political system, even through armed

intervention. U.S. expanded its access to foreign markets in order to ensure growth of domestic economy. U.S. built a modern navy to protect its interest abroad U.S. exercised its international police

power to ensure dominance in Latin America.

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