Languages of South America. Amazonian Languages After Epps & Salanova 2013 (typology of Amazonian), Adelaar 2004 (the Andes) (unless otherwise indicated, maps come from glottolog.org and simonsoutherton.blogspot.ru Generalities: South America Short vs. long chronological theory
All settlers coming to the Americas after 19k BP (LGM) vs. First setlers coming before LGM, i.e. 21 to 40 k BP First evidence of humans in South America back in 11k BP Evidence of manioc cultivated from 4k BP in Amazon Basin, agrarian communities in the Andes 5,5k BP domestication of llamas, vicuas, guanacos, and alpacas tps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Settlement_of_the_Americas 2 source: wiki Domestication of camelids llama guanaco alpaca
vicua 3 South America Languages of the Andes: grue Amazonian languages: orange 4 Linguistic boundaries Genealogical borders with other linguistic areas are relatively clearcut (compare with Mesoamerica vs. North America; or see the map for Carribean) 5 Adelaar 2004: the five spheres Chibcha sphere
Chibchan (27) pouring out to Mesoamerica Inca sphere Languages of the eastern slopes Araucanian sphere Tierra del Fuego 6 Adelaar 2004: the five spheres Chibcha sphere Inca sphere
Quechuan (45) Languages of the eastern slopes Araucanian sphere Tierra del Fuego 7 Adelaar 2004: the five spheres Chibcha sphere Inca sphere Languages of the eastern slopes (111)
Tacanan (7), Jivaroan (4), Cahuapanan (3), Bora-Huitoto (9), Zaparoan (6) and isolates Also Panoan, Arawakan, Tupi-Guarani, Tucanoan, Araucanian sphere Tierra del Fuego 8 Adelaar 2004: the five spheres Chibcha sphere Inca sphere Languages of the
eastern slopes Araucanian sphere (2) Mapudungun (250,000), Huilliche (2,000) Tierra del Fuego 9 Adelaar 2004: the five spheres Chibcha sphere Inca sphere Languages of the eastern slopes
Araucanian sphere Tierra del Fuego 1 (8) Cristina AbuelaCaldern (born 24 May 1928) 10 Fuegan: nomadic hunter gatherers occupancy since 6k BP dog and horse, metal weapons come in lately under Spaniards stone, wood and bone weapons Atlantic coast: land hunting (foot nomads, more bilingual) Pacific coast: seafood (canoe nomads, contestedly monolingual)
Kawesqar, Chono, Ya(h)gan, Selknam, Haush (Manenkn), Tehuelche (Patagones), Gnna Kne, Tehues (Teushen) NB: language list, not genealogical classification 11 Contact conditions: mixed marriages, particularly in the late colonial period barter between the Selknam on one side and the Yahgan or Kawesqar on the other slaving raids (e.g. by the Chono in Kawesqar territory) capture of Kawesqar women by the Tehuelches shared fishing grounds (e.g. Kawesqar and Yahgan)
migration of groups of Selknam across the Strait of Magellan and integration of the latter into the Tehuelche migration of Tehuelches across the Strait of Magellan; extensive migration of Mapuche Indians into Patagonia. 12 Language loss in Tierra del Fuego Chono Kawesq ar Yahga n Selkna m Haus h Gnn Tehues Tehuelche a Kne
Befor e 1850 21 fam. 4,000 2,900 3,600 300 some 1875 1 fam. 1900 2,0006,000 130945
29 false precision; contagious deseases as well as armed colonization in th 13 Classification: unresolved Languages of land nomads Selk'nam, Haush, Gnna Yajich, Teushen and Tehuelche probably related (10 to 55 percent of basic vocabulary) Kawesqar + Chono +? Yahgan 14 Phonology Chon o Kawesqa Yahga r
n Selkna Gnn Tehuelche m a Yajich #C 19 20/21 15/31 21 30 25 #V 6 3/6 6/12 7/8 6
6 Syl CVV CCVVC CCVV CCVCC CVVC CCVCC C C C numberCof vowels, Syl maximal syllabic #C number of consonants, #V complexity Voiced, glottalized present but not widespread, complex syllables E.g. Selknam: ejectives, r~l variation 15 Morphology 16 Word order Chono Kawesq ar Yahgan
Selkna m Gnna Yajich Tehuelche Adp Post Post Post Post Post Post Adj ?
Adj N Adj N N Adj N Adj N Adj SOV SVO/SOV OVS Clause OVS/ SOV VOS/SVO SOV yEpr tE:n han telqn The girl usually eats meat xe-nn mer onn The man came meat eat CU girl come-AF.MS DC man (Najlis 1973 via Adelaar
17 Amazonia: ~300 lgs in ~ 50 gen. units http://www.athenapub.com Map shows major families only, including: Tupi-Guarani light blue green 76 Arawakan 60 purple Carib 32 Panoan 27 Tuk(c)anoan 25 razil, J 16 but also Venezuela, 18 Bolivia, Peru, Columbia, Paragua Language families and
isolates Tupi(-Guarani) 76 Carib 32 (incl. Carib, Hixkaryna, Macushi, Apala) Panoan 27 (incl. Shipibo-Konibo) Tukanoan 25 Arawakan (Maipurean) 60 (incl Paumari) J 16 incl. Guarani, official lg of Paraguay, some 5 mln speakers Putative Macro J includes in addition Bororo (2), Jabutian
(2), Maxakalian (2), isolates Krenak, Ofaye, Karaja, Rikbatsa Minor families: Nadahup (Puinavean) - 7 (incl. Hup), Arauan 6, Nambiquaran 6, Chapacuran 5, Guaykuruan 5, Yanomam 4, Katukinan 2, Yaguan 2 Isolate: Pirah (Pirah debate), Trumai 19 Phonetic and phonology Rare phonemes: bilabial affricate (Shipibo), bilabial trill (Wari, Pirah) voiced linguolabial double flap (tongue tip hits the roof of the mouth then the bottom lip) Pirah Lexical tone: register tone (low, high, none), sometimes limited to the stressed syllable (pitch accent?) Nasal prosody, nasal harmony Guarani nasal harmony n-r-np- I don't beat you ndo-ro-haihu-i I don't love you 20
Noun classes: rich Sex-based gender systems Classifiers Some Bora lgs: several hundred classifiers Humans by sex, animates by sex, shape or unspecified, inanimates by shape, function etc. Shape: flat, round, long etc. Culture based classifications: Wak vines, snakes, fishing lines + large catfish?? large catfish is the namesake of a ceremonial trumpet that is bound with a vine rim and named two-snakes
21 Numeral systems: poor Some 1 and 2 only; many 1 to 3 to 5 Often, etymologically transparent: in Hup, two derives from eyes, three from rubber tree seed. In many four derives from brother, companion Andersen 2005: where numeral systems exist, they are a cultural attainment, that is, they have developed (or been borrowed from other languages) because they were culturally motivated. 22 Tense and number Tense Verbs Number
Nouns How come? 23 Verbal tense: weak Time reference expressed by optional suffixes or clitics Future vs. (optional) non-future Past vs. present reference induced from the type of situation (actional class) probably common to North America Mebengokre (J): ba n I Non.Fut ba n
I Non.Fut ba I ba I ku-by it-grab i-ngryk I-angry I grabbed it I'm angry 24 Tensed nouns Arawak, Carib, Nambiquara, Tupi-Guarani: tensed nominal reference a. che-roga-kue my-house-FORMER my former house (ashes or house) b. che-roga-ra my-house-FUTURE my future house (bricks or standing house)
25 Tensed nouns Not verbal tense cliticized to nouns! Epps: structurally simple noun phrases with markers that encode the evidence surrounding the epistemic status of the entity's existence. Independent of clausal verbal tense: a. o-va-ta che-rga-kue-pe 3-move-FUT 1-house-FORMER-in He will move into my former house. b. a-va-va'ekue hoga-r-pe 1-move-PAST 3.house-FUTURE-in I have moved into his future house. 26
Verbal number Multiple participants (agreement?) or multiple event (iterativity)? Itonama complicate verbal number but lacking nominal number Possibly a trait in common with N. America, esp. Muskogean and Tsimshian, where it is morphologically similar to J 27 Verbal number Mbengokre, alias Kayapo (J): argument number shifts to aspect when the verb changes from dynamic to stative (nominalized) form a. krwj j n mp kr
This parakeet ate the malanga. parakeet this NFUT malanga eat.V.SG b. krwj j n mp ku ate the malangas. parakeet this NFUT malanga eat.V.PL a. krwj j n kute mp krn has eaten (once in his life). parakeet this NFUT 3ERG malanga eat.N.SG b. krwj j n kute mp kur often eats parakeet this NFUT 3ERG malanga eat.N.PL 28 Evidentiality: abundant Nonvisual (heard, but also tasted or felt) Reportative
Visual may be marked but usually unmarked Does quotative count? Inferred Speakers responsibility not only for facticity of the information conveyed but also for the event itself connection to culture: interactive expectations and ethnography of speech 29 Evidentiality: abundant Interaction with grammar and morphology From obligatory to discourse-based Visual may be marked but usually unmarked
From particles to paradimgs of suffixes to fusion with tense, person and number (Tuyuca < East Tukano) 30 Ergative alignment: many Carib, Arawak, Tupi, (Macro) J, Nadahup, Panoan, Zaparo, Yagua, Yanomami, Trumai, Tacana, Guahibo Ergativity: counter-splits: Ergative on pronouns, accusative on NPs Ergative in present (generic / habitual), accusative with past reference 31 Active alignment: Tupi
Alias: split intranstive, active-stative, split S, fluid S Especially Tupi-Guarani in common with N. America? A A P P A reason to introduce the fourth slot to Dixonian A/S/P opposition? Need to distinguish between S=A and S=P? 32 Active alignment: Tupi
Guarani (Tupian): Stative (P-prefix) Active (A-prefix) che-yta I can swim a-yta I swim chemonda I'm a thief a-monda I steal che-karu I'm a big eater
a-karu I eat che-kaa I'm a drunkard a-kaa I get drunk che-guata I'm a fast walker a-guata I walk che-kirir a-kirir I stop talking I'm a quiet person
33 Active alignment: Tupi Alias: split intranstive, activestative, split S, fluid S Especially Tupi-Guarani S A P Rather, distinction is based on verbal classification: stative vs. active intransitives Stative may exhibit nominal properties The same intransitive verb may be con-strued with active and stative 34
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