MICROALGAE FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION Journal review by Cynthia Morris DIESEL VS. BIODIESEL FUEL Petroleum Diesel: Petroleum diesel fuel is a fractional distillate of crude oil Diesel engines are more powerful and more efficient than gasoline engines Diesel fuel has a higher Drawbacks: energy density than gasoline Contains sulfur in its emissions High particulate matter in exhaust
Adds to the CO2 pollution BIODIESEL Rudolf Diesel, the inventor of the Diesel Engine (1892,) originally designed it to run on vegetable oils. Fuel from Oil seeds or other fats: US: soybean oil and yellow grease (primarily, recycled cooking oil from restaurants). Europe: Rapeseed (80%), soybean and palm oil. Algae : still in the experimental Phase Biodiesel designations: B100 100% biodiesel
B20 20% biodiesel 80% Petroleum Diesel BIODIESEL To be officially sold as a biofuel the material must meet certain government standards: USA: (ASTM D6751)American Society of Testing and Materials EPA: registration requirements for fuels and fuel additives -Sec 211 of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7545) European standard (EN 14214) Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP 255) Australian Standard for Biodiesel BENEFITS OF BIODIESEL FROM MICROALGAE High per-acre productivity
Non-food based feedstock resources (soybeans, canola oil) Use of non-productive, non-arable land Utilization of a wide variety of water sources (fresh, brackish, saline, marine, and wastewater) Production of both biofuels and valuable co-products Potential recycling of CO2 BIODIESEL PROCESS Triglycerides: 3 fatty acid chains joined together by glycerine units. Transesterification is performed with methanol and a small quantity of an alkaline catalyst. Replacing the glycerol with methanol transforms the oil into a fuel Yields glycerol as a by-product.
(FAME-fatty acid methyl ester) MICROALGAE AS FEEDSTOCK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION, LIPID PRODUCTION AND BIOFUEL QUALITY. Authors: Erika C. Francisco, Debora B. Neves, Eduardo Jacob-lopes and Telma T. Franco Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology Special Issue : Air Pollution Control EXPERIMENT RATIONALE: To evaluate microalgae for biodiesel production by examining their fuel properties
Algae biodiesel must overcome its higher production cost than petroleum or soybean based diesel in order to compete Study was needed to determine the algal species that contained the highest lipid productivity and biofuel quality in order to direct future research MATERIALS AND METHODS Chosen because: Known species with high lipid productivity, but not currently used in commercial scale production MATERIALS AND METHODS Photobioreactors: 3 Liter volume Initial cell concentration of 0.1
g /L Bubbled with a filtered air mixture enriched with 15% CO2 Illumination by 16 20W fluorescent lamps 24:0 (Day:Night) Grown for 168 h Monitored every 12 h during the growth phase for: Cell density Carbon dioxide concentration pH MATERIALS AND METHODS Harvesting and Drying
The Biomass was separated by decantation and centrifugation. Dried by freeze drying at -40C at 50mmHg Biomass Determination
Cell concentration in g/L was evaluated by filtering a known concentration of culture media through a 0.45 m filter and drying at 60C for 24h MATERIALS AND METHODS Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Every 12 hrs CO2 concentration was measured as a function of time (15s
intervals for 4min)using a polarograhic probe Total Lipids Lipids extracted using Bligh and Dyer method. Total lipid concentration determined gravimetrically by evaporating the liquid fraction in a nitrogen atm and drying in a vacuum oven. Esterification and preparation of the fatty
acid methyl esters for analysis: 250mg Lipid extract added to 5.0 mL NaOH (0.5M) in Methanol Heated under reflux (5 Min) Add 15 mL of esterification reagent (NH4Cl, CH3OH, H2SO4) Heated under reflux for 3 Min
Transferred to separation funnel and mixed with 25mL petroleum ether and 50mL of deionized water Phase separation: aqueous phase discarded Organic Phase collected Solvent was evaporated and the residue collected
Methyl esters were made soluble in nheptane for injection into a gas chromatograph Fatty acid composition Determined by using a gas chromatographmass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) Identities were confirmed by comparing to standard peaks for a variety of fatty acids RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Looked for best combo of: biomass productivity lipid content Results show an
overall inverse relationship: When productivity goes up lipid production goes down. BIOFUEL QUALITY CN: a measurement of the fuels ability to auto ignite US and Brazilian standards 45 European and Australian standard 51 CFPP: cold filter plugging point: the lowest temp at which a fuel can pass through a 0.45 micrometer filter. Standards vary between countries. Rapeseed value is -10C, (additives and blending fuels helps to lower) Scenedesmus similar to peanut oil (17C) CONCLUSION
Chlorella vulgaris was the microalgae best suited for use as biodiesel of the strains tested Its quality characteristics of: Ester content Cetane number Iodine value Degree of unsaturation Cold filter plugging point All complied with limits established by the US, European, Brazilian, and Australian standards. CONCLUSION Benefits of microalgae:
Can be grown away from farmlands and forests Oil yields are orders of magnitude higher than from traditional oilseeds Can be grown through bioconversions of the CO2 from stationary industrial emissions Drawbacks: Price of production ranges from $6.50-8.00 per gal More research needs to be done to improve
production efficiency LIMITATIONS No clear data comparing current feedstocks to these algae. Used dendograms to compare data LIMITATIONS Needed better comparison graphing and data INCREASING CETANE NUMBER (CN) AND STABILITY 100% 90% 80% 70% 60%
0% Sunflower 10% Polyunsaturated From the National biodiesel board REFERENCES Francisco, E. C., Neves, D. B., Jacob-lopes, E., & Franco, T. T. (2010, March). Microalgae as feedstock for biodiesel production: Carbon dioxide sequestration, lipid production and biofuel quality. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology , 395-403. Hess, M. S. (2008). How Biodiesel Works. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from How Stuff Works: http://auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel- efficiency/alternativefuels/biodiesel.htm/printable
Newman, S. (2008). How Algae Biodiesel Works. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from How Stuff Works: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/algaebiodiesel1.htm/printable U.S. DOE 2010. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Biomass Program. PHOTO CREDITS http://www.aeonbiogroup.com http://biodiesel.evonik.com/product/biodiesel/en/a bout/transesterification/pages/default.aspx http://www.biodiesel.org/what-is-biodiesel/biodiese l-basicshttp://algaeforbiofuels.com/tag/photobiore actors/
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