# Air-Fuel Ratio Control in Spark-Ignition Engines

Air-Fuel Ratio Control in Spark-Ignition Engines Presented to: Dr. Riadh Habash, Fouad F. Khalil Presented by: Ziad El Kayal, Hassan Fakih Umar Qureshi, Marc Topalian How it Works Air and the fuel enter the carburetor, then

through the engine and finally past a senor Using a sensor to measure the oxygen content of the engine's exhaust, the system keeps the fuel-air ratio very close to the proportion for chemically perfect combustion References

Air-Fuel Ratio Control in Spark-Ignition Engines Using Estimation Theory Chen-Fang Chang, Nicholas P. Fekete, Alois Amstutz, and J. David Powell Development of a Transient Air Fuel Controller for an Internal Combustion Engine Stewart P. Prince Digital Control of an Automobile Engine Air-Fuel Ratio System Martin J. Dubois, Robert P. Van Til, Nicholas G. Zorka

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Control with a Single EGO Sensor Jessy W. Grizzle, Kelvin L. Dobbins, and Jeffrey A. Cook Design and Development of an ECU and its Air-Fuel Ratio Control Scheme Myomgho Sunwoo, Hansub Sim and Kangyune Lee Requirements

The controller must keep a fuel to air ratio of 1:14.7 (0.068) The overshoot at the output must not be greater than 16%. The settling time must be less than or equal to 10 seconds. Required Characteristic Equation From the IEEE article, the maximum overshoot

required is 16% and the maximum settling time was 10 seconds. Required Characteristic Equation: Through calculation we found s2 + 2wns + 2wns + 2wns + 2wns + 2wn s + 2wn (damping factor) = 0.5dampins + 2wng factor) = 0.5) = 0.5

wns + 2wn=0.8 r) = 0.5ad/s Therefore, set s equal to zero and find the poles, using the quadratic equation: s1=-0.4 + 0.43 i s2=-0.4 - 0.43 i Open Loop Transfer Function We needed to find a transfer function we could use to plot a root locus diagram

We found the open loop transfer function of our block diagram to get the following formula (0.5t2Td + 0.5t1Td)s + Td T1t2s2 + (t1 + t2)s + 1 Using constants from IEEE references we were able to plot the following root locus diagram

The diagram allowed us to find the roots and poles of the transfer function From the diagram we were able to design the lead compensator Root Locust Diagram Design of Lead Compensator Required Formula Gc(s)= (s+z) / (s+p)

The zero is found from the previous calculations, z = 0.4 Use Root Locus method to find the value of the pole. Draw straight lines from s1 to all the poles and zeros found on the root locus No need to use s2 because it is just a complex conjugate Find the angle at which the pole is located 1= 177 degrees 2= 50 degrees) 3= 5 degrees) 4= 1 degree

= 19 degrees Using + -1 -2 -3 -4 -d=-180 degrees d=65 degrees Using this we were able to find the pole which we used to design our lead compensator Gc(s)= (s+0.4) / (s+0.6) Open Loop Transfer Function Diagram Closed Loop Transfer Function Diagram

Simulink Design Simulink Closed Loop Transfer Function Diagram Conclusion Through research, we were able to design a controller to regulate the fuel to air ration in a spark-ignition engine with an overshoot of 11% and a settling time of 10 seconds.

We were able to accomplish the emission standards by adjusting the fuel to air ratio required by the IEEE paper.

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