African & Indian Independence

African & Indian Independence

AFRICAN & ASIAN INDEPENDENCE BRITISH RULE OVER INDIA Britain ruled India for many years, & Indians pressing for self-rule felt deserved it after involvement in WWII Britain rethinking expense of maintaining distant colonies

East Pakistan larger population & felt neglected by government in West Pakistan Rebellion broke out & Indian army lent support to East Pakistan

Army of West Pakistan, which had occupied the East, withdrew & new nation of Bangladesh was formed from East Pakistan MOHANDAS GANDHI

Nonviolent protestor for Indian independence Admired as Mahatma or Great Soul INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (INC)

A.k.a. Congress Party was a national political party that represented India 1940s India had 350 million Hindus & 100 million Muslims Most members of INC were Hindus, but Muslims were important as well (even to hold office)

MUSLIM LEAGUE 1906 goal to protect Muslim interests in India Concerned Congress Party (or INC) would look out for Hindu interests Leader insisted Muslims resign from Congress Party & not accept Indian independence if ruled by Hindu-dominated Congress Party British encouraging this division League proposed partition (dividing up) of

India into separate Hindu and Muslim nations with a Hindu India & Muslim Pakistan Riots started Gandhi deeply hurt INDIA GAINS INDEPENDENCE July 1947, Britain granted India/Pakistan independence Millions of Hindus, Muslims, & Sikhs have to relocate

Summer 1947, while 10 million people moved, roughly 1 million died from massacres Jan. 30, 1948 Gandhi went to Delhi to plead for fair treatment of Muslims was shot by Hindu extremist who thought Gandhi was too protective of Muslims MODERN INDIA WITH

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU Aug. 15, 1947, India was freed & became worlds largest democracy federal system Jawaharlal Nehru Indias first prime minister; one of Gandhis followers Supported Western-style industrialization Called for reorganization of states by language

Tried to elevate status of lower castes & expand rights of women Indira Gandhi Nehrus daughter prime minister in 1966 Formed closer relationship between India & SU during Cold War Encouraged nuclear program in India Increased food grain production

Faced a threat from Sikh extremists who wanted an independent state for Sikhs Was gunned down by two of her Sikh bodyguards led to small war CEYLON TO SRI LANKA Ceylon independent in 1948

changed name to Sri Lanka of Sri Lanka 16 million people are Buddhists AFRICA NEW NATIONS IN AFRICA

Africa not willing to go back to colonial rule after WWII, especially after helping in the war Africas main problem was negative impact of colonial rule Gold Coast becomes 1st African colony to gain independence (south of Sahara) & took name Ghana JOMO KENYATTA &

MAU MAU REBELLION British settlers not willing to give up Kenya lands New strong Kenyan leader Jomo Kenyatta worked hard to unite ethnic/language groups Rise of Mau Mau secret society made up of Kenyan farmers forced out of the highlands by British Mau Maus aim frighten white farmers into leaving Kenyatta had no connection to Mau Mau, but

refused to condemn them was imprisoned by British Kenya granted independence & Kenyatta was released became 1st president SOUTH AFRICA South Africa had constitutional government, but gave whites power & denied black majority its rights 1948 National Party promoted Nationalism

instituted apartheid, a complete separation of the races National Congress (ANC) to fight for their rights leader, Nelson Mandela Mandela joined fight for black rights & lost; was imprisoned for 27 years 1990, finally won & ANC became legalized Mandela released from prison 4 years later , elected president of South Africa until 1999 Under Mandela, South Africa became a democratic constitution

INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA Right to self-determination (U.N Charter) Peaceful and violent revolutions after WWII Pride in African cultures and heritage Resentment of imperial rule and economic exploitation Loss of colonies by Great Britain,

France, Belgium, & Portugal Influence of superpower rivalry during Cold War INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS & DEVELOPMENT West Africa: peaceful transition Algeria: War of Independence from France

Kenya (Britain): Violent struggle under leadership of Jomo Kenyatta South Africa: Black South Africans struggle against apartheid led by Nelson Mandela (1st black president of Republic of South Africa) BRITAI N

MARGARET THATCHER British Prime Minister 1979-1990 Longest Prime Minister & first/only woman to serve Nicknamed Iron Lady Promotes free trade & less government regulation of business Close relationship with US & US foreign policy Assertion of Britains military power

CHINA CHINA FOLLOWS ITS OWN PATH Mao died in 1976 moderates took control of Communist Party Deng Xiaoping - leader of new Communist Party Willing to use capitalist ideas to

support economy Welcomed foreign investment & technology Created long-term relationship with US MIDDLE EAST DIVISION OF PALESTINE & ISRAEL

A portion of Palestine was taken and made into Israel, giving the Jewish people a homeland and trying to solve some of the conflict Jews claim land 3,000 years ago; Palestinians claim land after Jews driven out 135 AD; Arabs claim land since conquest in 7th century Realizing the amount of conflict, Britain referred idea of partition to UN with Jerusalam being international city owned by neither side All Islamic countries and Palestinians voted against

it, but Jews welcomed it US & many in Europe felt sorry for Jews after Holocaust & supported the decision May 14, 1948 creation of Israel was announced as Jewish homeland GAMAL ABDEL NASSER President of Egypt 1956 - Ordered seizure of Suez Canal from British won

Established relationship with Soviet Union helped him to build up military Wanted to confront Israel, but lost men & some land NASSERS DAM BUILT THE ASWAN HIGH DAM over the Nile ANWAR SADAT &

GOLDA MEIR Nassers successor of Egypt, Anwar Sadat planned joint Arab attack on Yom Kippur (holiest of Jewish holidays) Golda Meir Israels Prime Minister; launched counterattack & regained most of land back (with help of US) Truce signed, ending 1973 war but

tensions still high LAST DAMN SLIDE OF THE YEAR!! MANDATES IN THE MIDDLE EAST Was established by League of Nations

Granted independence after WWII French Mandates: Syria & Lebanon British Mandates: Jordan (originally Transjordan) & Palestine Resulted in Middle east conflicts created by religious differences continues to this day

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