Africa Center for Strategic Studies - University of Pittsburgh

Africa Center for Strategic Studies - University of Pittsburgh

Africa Center for Strategic Studies AFRICOM: The Three Ds: Defense, Diplomacy and Development Dr. Louis A. Picard Senior Research Fellow Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 AFRICOM: Two Views

1. So Called Whole of Government Approach- The Method 2. Historical Debate about Hearts and Minds- The Problem Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 Whole of Government Definition: Integrated Approach to

Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations in Fragile States Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 Whole of Government 1. Focus: Diplomacy, Development and Defense 2.Usually Add Information/ Intelligence, Trade and

Finance, Environmental, etc. Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 Fifteen Minute Break Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 Whole of Government Countries: Extent of Integration

Scandinavia Canada U.K. Australia France U.S. Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 Hearts and Minds Debate Hearts and Minds

Phrase Widely Used re. AFRICOMDevelopment Linked to Ideological Change- Rural Development, Collective Villages, Militias Five Classic Variations Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 Hearts and Minds Five Examples a. Origins- Malayan Emergency- (But Not Kenya)- Malaya Only clearly agreed upon Success re. Hearts and Minds. Next three failed to meet goals b. French Military Theory- Best

Represented in debates about Indo-China not Algeria c. U.S. Goal: Vietnam- Third Force (Quiet vs. Ugly American literary image) Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 Hearts and Minds Examples d. WHAM- Winning Hearts and Minds P.W. Botha- So-Called Total Strategy Not a Happy Memory d. Cold War- Successfully ended

(1948-1989). Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 Whole Government vs. Hearts and Minds in AFRICOM Issues: a. Cold War- Focus re. Hearts and Minds was on States. Key- Political Leadership was Coordinating b. Now since 2001, there is a perception World Wide re. U.S. that there is military and security which is

driving AFRICOM- Focus: Non-State Actors Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 Whole Government Clearer: Focus on Implementation Problems: a. Blending the Three Ds- People and Finance (Stovepipes and Staying in your own lane) Non Defense Budgeting Limitations Budget imbalance- State/USAID vs. Defense

Joint Activities- Controversial eg. Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 Implementation Problems b. DFID vs. USAID in terms of resources (Development vs.

Security) c. Role of Conflict/Post-Conflict Financial Pool Jointly Managed, so called Inter-Agency Doctrine d. Role of Contractors and NGOs Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 The Current Debate Re. AFRICOM 1. Location of Leadership- subordination of civilian leadership to military command 2. New Targets- Direct linkup between

security system and non-state actors. How this will work? 3. Issue: Is Primary Concern fragile states or international terrorism 4. Is definition of Fragile States important Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 The Current Debate Re. AFRICOM-2 5. Physical location- Organizational location: Europe vs. Africa (Symbolic) 6. Military- no single big base possibly an Office

(change from current situation only incrementally) pods and mobile forces 7. Military Policy- Non-issue in the sense that it changes a name and integrates the horn and Indian Ocean islands into the rest of Africa and breaks Africa off from Europe organizationally, a legacy of the colonial paradigm Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 The Current Debate Re. AFRICOM-3 8. Diplomacy and DevelopmentAlready linked State/USAID

The Non-Security vs. Security Components: Not well articulated at this point Perception of Subordination at regional and sub-regional level to military commands Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007 Conflict and Post-Conflict Governance Key Role: National Level- Coordinating & the Responsibility of Chief of Mission- The Ambassador and DCM

This Coordinating Role may need to be addressed within the context of: 1. Relationship with African Union 2. Regional Economic Commissions Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007

AFRICA Center Research Focus Series of Studies of African Perceptions of AFRICOM and the Three Ds- (Triangulation Study) Personal Research Interests: Coordinating Mechanisms Common Pool Resources Balance Development vs. Security Focus Africa Center for Strategic Studies Tuesday, 10 July 2007

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