Acid & Base Chemistry Brnsted-Lowry Acids & Base Defines acidity in terms of protons: positively charged hydrogen ions, H + .
Brnsted-Lowry Acids are proton donors. Brnsted-Lowry Bases are proton acceptors. Brnsted-Lowry Acids contain hydrogen atoms. The symbol H A is used for Brnsted-Lowry Acids.
Brnsted-Lowry Bases form bonds to protons. Protons have no electrons & bases contain an available electron pair that can be easily donated to form new bonds. This includes LONE PAIRS or pi electrons. The symbol B: is used for Brnsted-Lowry bases. Brnsted-Lowry Acids & Base
Equilibrium arrows Brnsted-Lowry Acids & Base Brnsted-Lowry Acids & Base Brnsted-Lowry Acids & Base
Brnsted-Lowry Acids & Bases In proton transfer reactions, ELECTRON-RICH BASES donate an e- pair to an acid (polar H-A bond). The H (proton) has a (+) charge = ELECTRON DEFICIENT. Soelectron-rich species react with electron-deficient ones. Wellhow do you know which is the acid and which is the base in a proton transfer reaction? (1) When one starting material contains a hydrogen (HCl or H 2SO4) you have an
acidergoa proton donor! (2) When you have an atom with a lone pair of e-, a pi () bond or ) bond or OH you have a baseergoa proton acceptor! (3) Starting materials with net (+) charges are usually an acid; while starting materials with a (-) charge are usually a base. Brnsted-Lowry Acids & Base ACID STRENGTH
Acid strength is the tendency of an acid to donate a proton. Think about EN?!? Take HCl for an example. Chlorine will steal hydrogens one e- and have a complete octet which lends stability to the atom (WHY Though?!). Also, chlorine is more electronegative than hydrogen hence, more greedy for electrons due to atomic and nuclear structure. Consider the nucleus of a chlorine atom! So many more protons than the nucleus of a hydrogen atom..RIGHT?! The more readily a compound donates a proton, the stronger the acid. Acidity is measured by an equilibrium constant. When a Brnsted-Lowry Acid H-A is dissolved in water, an acid-base reaction occurs. An equilibrium constant can be
Brnsted-Lowry Acids & Base Brnsted-Lowry Acids & The STRONGER the acid, the further the equilibrium lies to the right and the larger the K. Bases
a Usually in Ochem, Ka is small unlike many inorganic acids. THE SMALLER THE pKa = the stronger the acid. Sostrong acids like HCl
(hydrochloric acid) or H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) will have SMALL pKa values! While acetic acid (CH3CO2H) or formic acid (HCOOH) will have large pKa values because they are weak acids AKA organic acids. Organic acids have large pKa values because they do not ionize readily they are considered weak acids. IEthey do not give up their protons easily while strong inorganic acids quite readily give up their extra proton.
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