Choosing Accommodations for English Language Learners with Disabilities Laurene Christensen, Ph.D., National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota Brian Touchette, Assessment Resources, Delaware Department of Education Melissa Gholson, Office of Assessment and Accountability, West Virginia Department of Education Vitaliy Shyyan, Ph.D., National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota National Conference on Student Assessment June 22, 2013
Accommodations Manual How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of English Language Learners with Disabilities Step 1: Expect ELLs with disabilities to achieve grade-level academic content standards ELL/IEP or ELL/504 Plan Team
special education teachers or 504 Plan committee
representatives language educators and facilitators (ESL/bilingual teacher(s), another ESL/bilingual/migrant teacher or ELL administrator, language acquisition specialist, interpreter) assessment officials (test administrator(s), guidance counselor, reading specialist) general education teachers (classroom/content teacher(s)) first/native language special education practitioners school administrators (principal, school/district official(s))Step 1 parents (parent(s)/guardian(s)) students
Equal Access to Content Standards every ELL/IEP or ELL/504 Plan Team member must be familiar with content standards and accountability systems at the state and district level every ELL/IEP or ELL/504 Plan Team member must know where to locate standards and updates all general, special, and language educators, as well as other educational stakeholders must collaborate for successful student access Step 1
Conditions for High Expectations 1. 2. 3. Instruction is provided by teachers who are qualified to teach in the content areas addressed by state standards and who know how to differentiate instruction for diverse learners.
Education plans for ELLs with disabilities are developed to ensure the provision of specialized instruction (e.g., specific reading skills, strategies for learning how to learn). Appropriate accommodations are provided to help students access grade-level content. Step 1 Legal Basis Participation of ELLs with disabilities in assessments is
required by federal laws: Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2007 (ESEA) Section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act Lau v. Nichols (1974) Castaeda v. Pickard (1981) Step 1 ESEA Focuses
how successful schools are including all students in standards-based education how well students are achieving standards what needs to be improved upon for specific groups of students Step 1 Including All ELLs with Disabilities in State Accountability Assessments assurance of the provision of accommodations to
facilitate student access to grade-level instruction and state assessments use of alternate assessments to assess the achievement of students with the most significant cognitive disabilities use of different assessment formats to assess the achievement of beginner ELLs Step 1 State Legislation*
CURRENT STATE WEBSITE FOR ALL CONTENT STANDARDS/COMMON CORE STANDARDS COULD BE INSERTED HERE. CURRENT STATE-SPECIFIC POLICIES ABOUT THE PARTICIPATION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES IN STATE ASSESSMENT COULD BE INSERTED HERE.
Step 1 Discussion Point How do I stay updated on current federal and state accommodation policies for ELLs with disabilities? Step 1 Step 2: Learn about accommodations for instruction
and assessment What Are Accommodations? Procedures and materials that increase equitable access during instruction and assessments for ELLs with disabilities and generate valid assessment results that show what ELLs with disabilities know and can do
Provided to a student during state assessments AND during classroom instruction, classroom assessments, and district assessments Step 2 Technology Implications In the age of technology-mediated educational practices, many computer-based accommodations facilitate instruction and assessment of ELLs with
disabilities effectively if they are selected and used properly. Step 2 The Use of Accommodations Is Linked Through Each of These Areas Step 2 Figure from ASES SCASS/CCSSO Accommodations Training Slides PowerPoint
Content Standards/Common Core Standards Who Is Involved in Decisions? ELL/IEP or ELL/504 Plan Teams must make assessment and accommodation decisions for students based on individual needs in accordance with state and federal guidelines. ELLs with IEPs and 504 Plans must be provided accommodations based on individual needs as long as the accommodations meet state accommodation guidelines and regulations and do
not invalidate the assessment results. Accommodations should be documented in IEPs Step 2 and 504 Plans. Accommodations and Universal Design UD principles improve instruction and assessment for all students UD in assessments may reduce the need for accommodations and alternate assessments UD in assessments cannot eliminate the need for
accommodations and alternate assessments UD can provide more cost-effective assessments and valid inferences about them Step 2 Good Practices and Resources Resources and strategies that should be allowable whenever possible for all students
Step 2 Accommodations vs. Modifications Accommodations provide access without reducing learner expectations Modifications can increase the learner achievement gap by lowering expectations for what students are required to know or do Step 2
English Language- and Disability-related Needs Step 2 Student Profiles Think of specific students who represent the four areas of the figure. What are they like? What are the students needs and characteristics? What are the implications of accommodation decisions for each student? Step 2
Accommodations vs. Modifications vs. Best Practices Dictionary Step 2 Activity: Accommodations vs. Modifications vs. Best Practices Graphic Organizers Step 2 Activity:
Read Aloud Text Accommodation Discussion Point: How would you read aloud the following test item? A thermometer is shown. What temperature is shown on the thermometer? A 11C B 12F C 25C D 25F Step 2
Step 3: Select accommodations for instruction and assessment for individual students Document Accommodations On a students IEP On a students 504 Plan On a students ELL individualized plan Step 3
IEP Areas to Address Consideration of special factors Supplementary aids and services Participation in assessments Step 3 504 Plan Examples of Conditions allergies or asthma attention difficulties
communicable diseases (e.g., hepatitis) drug or alcoholic addictions, as long as they are not currently using illegal drugs environmental illnesses temporary disabilities from accidents who may need short term hospitalization or homebound recovery Step 3 Making Decisions for Accommodations
What are the students language learning strengths and areas of further improvement? How do the students learning needs affect the achievement of grade-level content standards? What specialized instruction (e.g., learning strategies, organizational skills, reading skills) does the student need to achieve grade-level content standards? What accommodations will increase the students access to instruction and assessment by addressing the
students learning needs and reducing the effect of the Step 3 students language barrier? These may be new accommodations or accommodations the student is currently using. Student Characteristics: Questions to Ask What accommodations are regularly used by the student during instruction and assessments? What are the results for assignments and assessments when accommodations are used and not used? What is the students perception of how well an
accommodation worked? Are there effective combinations of accommodations? Step 3 Student Characteristics: Questions to Ask What difficulties does the student experience when using accommodations? What are the perceptions of parents, teachers, and other specialists about how the accommodation worked?
Should the student continue to use an accommodation, are changes needed, or should the use of the accommodation be discontinued? Step 3 Consider the Following the students willingness to learn to use the accommodation opportunities to learn how to use the accommodation in classroom settings
conditions for use on state assessments Step 3 Discussion Point What would be helpful to ask students and parents about accommodation use? Step 3
Prior Accommodation Use Accommodations should not be used for the first time on the state test Plan time for student to learn new accommodations In a technology-based setting, be sure that the student knows how to use the accommodation that is part of the platform Plan for evaluation and improvement of accommodation use
Step 3 Instruction vs. Assessment Accommodations Sometimes, accommodations used in instruction may not be used on an assessment Plan time for students to practice NOT using certain accommodations before the state assessment Some instructional accommodations may alter what a test is designed to measure Step 3
Individual Test Characteristics: Questions to Ask What are the characteristics of the test my student needs to take? Are the test tasks similar to classroom assessment tasks or does the student need to have the opportunity to practice similar tasks prior to testing? Does the student use an accommodation for a classroom task that is allowed for similar tasks on the state or district tests? Are there other barriers that could be removed
by using an accommodation that is not already offered or used by the student? Step 3 Maintaining Validity: Questions to Ask Does the state or district allow the identified accommodation for the test or portion of the test noted as a barrier? If not, does the accommodation change the standard of the assessment?
Are there additional principles to help guide decision making? Step 3 Accommodation Policies and Maintaining Validity Test validity is compromised if a student refuses to use an assigned accommodation Long-term implications of accommodations should be considered
Plan ample time for students to become familiar with accommodations Plan for ongoing evaluation and improvement of accommodation use Step 3 Step 4: Administer accommodations during instruction and assessment
Accommodations During Instruction Students should be provided selected accommodations during instruction An accommodation may not be used solely during assessments Familiarize students with technological aspects of accommodations Step 4 Accommodations During Assessment
Take appropriate security precautions Understand the procedures needed to administer the assessment Administer standardized assessments according to prescribed procedures and conditions Avoid any conditions that might invalidate results Provide for and document all reasonable and allowable accommodations Avoid unfair actions or conditions Step 4
Administering Assessments and Accommodations Take appropriate security precautions before, during, and after the administration of the assessment Understand the procedures needed to administer the assessment prior to administration Administer standardized assessments according to prescribed procedures and conditions and notify appropriate persons if any nonstandard or delimiting conditions occur
Step 4 Administering Assessments and Accommodations Avoid any conditions in the conduct of the assessment that might invalidate the results Provide for and document all reasonable and allowable accommodations for the administration of the assessment to persons with disabilities or special needs Avoid actions or conditions that would permit or encourage individuals or groups to receive scores that
misrepresent their actual levels of attainment Step 4 Ethical Testing Practices Ethical testing practices must be maintained Unethical testing practices are inappropriate interactions between test administrators and students taking the test
Step 4 Standardization Adherence to uniform administration procedures and conditions during an assessment Is essential and necessary to produce comparable performance results Must be followed strictly Step 4
Test Security Maintaining the confidentiality of test questions and answers Critical in ensuring the integrity and validity of test results Tests are kept in secure locations or on passwordprotected computers Students are guaranteed secure and equitable testing conditions Step 4
Step 5: Evaluate and improve accommodations use Reasons Why Ensure meaningful participation Reveal questionable patterns of use Support continued use Indicate additional training needs Guide formative evaluation Step 5
Ways to Collect Information From classroom data Observations of test administrations Interviews with test administrators Talking with students after testing And more Step 5 What Information Should Be Collected
Decision-making teams, schools, and districts decide Technology-based accommodations allow for better records In a paper-and-pencil test, accommodation information can be coded with other student data Step 5 Sample Questions to Ask at the School or District Level Are there policies to ensure ethical testing practices, the
standardized administration of assessments, and that test security practices are followed before, during, and after the day of the test? What types of accommodations are provided and are some used more than others? How well do students who receive accommodations perform on state and local assessments? Step 5 Sample Questions to Ask
at the Student Level What is the students perception of how well the accommodation worked? What combinations of accommodations seem to be effective? What are the difficulties encountered in the use of accommodations? Step 5 Discussion Point (Think, Pair, Share)
What are the consequences of under-accommodating? What are the consequences of over-accommodating? Step 5 Postsecondary Implications Continued use of accommodations, if needed, at the college and career levels Decision-making teams document accommodation use Colleges and universities may allow fewer accommodations than those available in K-12 settings
Students document their need for accommodations Step 5 Assuring Access for All Students Accommodations Research Plan Analysis of accommodations results Disaggregated by all sub groups Cross data with enrollment in programs such as universal preK, special education and advanced courses
Cross data analysis by indicators (e.g. graduation/drop out and retention rates, suspensions) ELLs additionally are disaggregated by language proficiency levels, number of years in program Data dissemination and technical support WVS 326 State and District Accommodations Report Analyzed accommodations provision data for WESTEST 2 by content area 7 reports were generated for each content area to summarize
(1) provision rate, (2) refusal rate, (3) not allowable rate, and (3) number of students over-accommodated State, district, school-level reports Intended uses of these data Set specific targets for provision rates Identify common errors to inform your training Eliminate under- and over-accommodation WVS. 326 Accommodations Reporting
1. Count of Students with Accommodation This report provides the total number of students with the accommodation listed on the front of the 326 form (this number serves as the denominator for all rate calculations in reports 2 6). 2. Provision Rate This report provides the percentage of students with the accommodation for whom the accommodation was marked provided.
3. Not Allowed Rate This report provides the percentage of students with the accommodation for whom the accommodation was marked not provided and the not allowed code was provided in the reason field. 4. Refusal Rate This report provides the percentage of students with the accommodation for whom the accommodation was marked not provided and the refused code was provided in the reason field.
5. Not Provided (no reason indicated) This report provides the percentage of students with the accommodation for whom the accommodation was marked not provided but no reason code was provided. 6. Not Provided (blank) 7. Count of Students Overaccommodated This report provides the percentage of students for whom no information was provided on whether or not the accommodation was provided. This report provides the number of students who do not have the accommodation
listed in the pre-slug file, but for whom the accommodation was marked provided. State Reports District Reports Most Frequently Selected Accommodations for Students with Disabilities Accommodation Code P02 P26
Accommodation Shorthand n of Students Recommended % of Students Recommended to Receive Accommodation to Receive Accommodation Have test read aloud verbatim 17,095 41.4% (except RLA) Have directions, passage and 11,488
27.8% prompt read aloud for online writing P15 Have directions only read aloud 7,369 17.9%
P18 Have directions re-phrased by trained examiner Scribe (sel. response) Scribe (extended, cons., gridded response, OWA) Use extra time for any timed test Take more breaks
6,605 16.0% 727 635 1.8% 1.5% 8,971
21.7% 6,872 16.6% Flexible scheduling, extra time within same day 5,663 13.7%
R02 R04 T04 T03 T07 Resources Tool 1: Assessment Adaptation Grid Tool 2: Best Practices and Allowable Resources for All Students Tool 3: Sample Student Profiles
Tool 4: Accommodation Criteria Tool 5: Dos and Donts when Selecting Accommodations Tool 6: Accommodations from the Students Perspective Tool 7: Parent Input on Accommodations Tool 8: Accommodation Use in the Classroom Resources Tool 9: After-Test Accommodation Questions Tool 10: Assessment Accommodations Plan Tool 11: State Assessment Program
Tool 12: Logistics Planning Checklist Tool 13: Accommodations Journal for Teachers Tool 14: Identifying Roles and Responsibilities Tool 15: Questions to Guide Evaluation at the School or District Level Thank you!
Use the language of sequence, e.g. then, after that, next, subsequently, Use the ANALYTICAL language of sequence. This means words that explain why the sequence occurred. E.g. because, as a result of this, consequently, therefore,. E.G. Write a narrative account...
Line, token type, token specifier. ... Quadruple 1 assigns 0 to SUM, quadruple 7 uses SUM. If SUM is in a register, then use the register directly. ... Basic blocks and flow graph for the quadruples in Fig5.22 (Figure 5.23)...
Utilitarian Ethics. Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral worth of an action is determined solely by its contribution to overall utility: that is, its contribution to happiness or pleasure as summed among all people.
Recte autumas: cista tua vere est. At me vos in cistam immisisse parum memini… At contra Richardi Baroni, maximi tenorum omnium, quem tuopte quondam paene negotiatust, memor sine dubio eris… Ita! Epistulam quandam tuam nuperrime tradidi. Quomodo vales? Optime me...
The industries of the future will bring about rapid change. Our lives will be enhanced by the new emerging technologies. The education community will play a very important role as these industries will require higher levels of education attainment to...
Synonyms for "morally* correct" or justified; set of "justified" moral principles of obligation, rights, and ideals. Particular beliefs or attitudes concerning morality. Area of study or inquiry - an activity of understanding moral values, resolving moral issues, and justifying moral...
Narrow Product Line, Deep Assortment. Wide Variety of Product Lines i.e. Clothing, Home Furnishings, & Household Items. Wide Variety of Food, Laundry, & Household Products. Limited Line of High-Turnover Convenience Goods. Large Assortment of Routinely Purchased Food & Nonfood Products,...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!