Accessibility, Universal Design, Learning styles, and Technology
Accessibility, Universal Design, and Technology Whats the final product? Accessibility in the workplace Americans With Disabilities Act -1990
Federal Rehabilitation Act -1973 1998 amendment sec. 508 -accessibility on the web W3C (World Wide Web consortium) 1994 Foundation for academic institutions May, 2011 The DOE elaborated on the laws. Online courses and Section 508 Section 508 is an amendment to the 1973 Rehabilitation Action of 1973 states: Electronic and information technology must be accessible to people with disabilities. Directly relates to web pages and videos but
other laws apply to ALL materials. Accessiblity, Usability, and Equal Access Accessibility o Able to access all content and services Equal access o Provides for access of anyone who is using the service or product
Usability o Easy to learn o Quick to use o Simple to remember o Easy to navigate o Intuitive and efficient W3C & WCAG Made up of web gurus from around the web Guidelines on web accessibility Guidelines for web best practices Online validation tools (HTML, CSS)
Learning Disabilities Dysgraphia Dyscalculia Dyslexia Dyspraxia Non-verbal disorder Auditory Processing Disorder Mobility Impairments Health Impairments Psychiatric Impairments Technologies Blind o Screen Readers o JAWS
Magnification o MAGic o DNSP o Switches o Eyegaze Low Vision o Screen Learning Disabilities o WYNN o K3000 Paralysis
Color Blind o MAGic PTSD o Comfortable Environment Accessible to everyone? Real Connections: Making Distance Learning Accessibl e to Everyone. IMAGES
Images Section 508 (a) Standards A text equivalent for every non-text element shall be provided e.g. via ALT-Tag or in element content D-link Screen readers: how do they interact with images?
http:// www.doit.wisc.edu/accessibility/video/scnrdrpt 1.mov Multimedia Video, audio, animations Section 508 Standard (b) Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation o Video captions, auditory descriptions of relevant action, synchronized
o Audio provide an alternate text document (transcript) o Animations provide detailed description of action Section 508 Standard (m) If a plug-in is required to view information, user needs to be able to access plug-in. Challenges to Closed Captioning and Transcripts Costly and add a lot to the production time May or may not be actually used Third party videos often do not have CC CC for TV and internet have different formats
Possible solutions o Do it yourself (Camtasia) o Hire Company to CC or generate Transcipts o Provide both CC and Transcripts Methods and formats of Delivery Download Delivery Quality not affected by connection speed Same quality for all once downloaded Media can be reviewed at any time. Could take hours to download
Copyright issues??? Streamed Delivery Little wait time (initial buffering) Multiple versions for different connection speed Deleted as soon as played Web server space will not be consumed Depends on connection capacity Internet connection required each time it is viewed High action video may not work well DVD
High quality No Internet connection Hard to make updates or embed material Must be delivered to student Quicktime Built in progressive downloads Supports creation of reference files Allows encoded password Multiple tracks layers for captioning or multiple language Must be installed Lower quality at lower connection speeds Real
Media Great quality Supports Windows, Mac, and Linux Hard to find free download Not great backward compatibility Windows Media High quality Must create multiple links for different versions No Mac Flash Customized with progressive downloads hard to use with multiple versions of content Things to think about! Consider video length How will students access it: campus network? Home access? Content: audio, narrated presentations, talking head?
Copyright? http://www.overstream.net/view.php?oid=ejt6rki7npng http://www.dcmp.org/ciy/ Overstream: http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIpHcnP90mg&feature=resul ts_video&playnext=1&list=PL2E16EB97EE9C0BB4 Format text Formatting of Text
Section 508 Standard (c) Web pages shall be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup Using Color to convey a meaning creates a problem for some. Add a graphic or character preceding the colored text (alt. text) 508 does not address font size but be aware. Data tables Excel sheets and such
Section 508 standard (g) Row and column headers shall be identified for data tables o Table linearization o Either one row of headings or one column of headings or both o Assistive technology reads linearly o Assistive technology assumes that the first row of data and column of data contain heading info o HTML markup (blackboard example) Universal design and Learning styles Universal design Plan ahead
2. Organize content flow 3. Simple, consistent navigation 4. Choose Blackboard tools carefully 5. Use good discussion board etiquette 6. Use color with care 7. Provide accessible document formats 8. Choose fonts carefully 9. Convert ppt to accessible HTML or video 10.If its audio make it visual,; if its visual make it auditory 1. Texas Adminstrative Code The local rules
TAC 206 & 213 Due Diligence State of Texas response to ADA / Section 508 TAC 206: online content, websites, courses TAC 213: electronic & information resources Applicable to state and higher education Due diligence may help avoid litigation
Ignorance of the law is not an excuse TAC 206 Highlights Text equivalent for every non-text element Color coding not only means of conveying info No flashing or blinking text Electronic forms accessible to screen
readers Skip navigation to main content link Timed responses allow option for more time Link to policy at bottom or every page TAC 213 Highlights Should allow for keyboard only access On screen indication of focus for AT Information describing user interface
element Apps shall not override user selected colors Animation, non-animation shall also be available Color coding not only means of conveying info Captioning and transcripts shall be DOWNLOADS and LINKS http://audacity.sourceforge.net/download/ http:// ncam.wgbh.org/invent_build/web_multimedia/tools-guidelines/download-magpie
http://kerryj.com/2012/03/14/youtube-caption-fixing-down-and-dirty-tutorial/ Magic software helps people with low vision view information on their computer screen while hearing it through their speech synthesizer. The software magnifies screen information, from one to 16 times its normal size. Depending on the edition, the software price range from 300 up to 1000 USD. ZoomText Magnifier/Reader software magnifies text on a computer screen up to 36x and reads text out loud from a computer screen. The software prices about 700 USD. GMag is a free screen magnification program for the Linux and Unix operating systems, and is used primarily by individuals with visual impairments. There are two versions of gmag: 'gmag' is the basic version and 'gmag-gnome' is the more robust version. Gmag-gnome allows the user to save his or her configuration. DOWNLOADS and LINKS
Kurzweil 1000 provides blind users access to printed and electronic materials. Scanned print documents and digital files (such as eBooks or email) are converted from text to speech and read aloud. Kurzweil 3000 is a comprehensive reading, writing, and learning software application that can assist students who experience dyslexia and other decoding difficulties, attention deficit disorder, or those who are English Language Learners. OpenBook enables users to get the most accurate scans possible. The reading and viewing features enable users to quickly read documents. Features include automatic page advances, or move by words, lines, sentences or paragraphs. The Skim Reading
command provides a quick overview of document content by reading only the first or the first and last sentence of every paragraph. Quickly jump to the next reading unit during skim reading or Say All. The price of the software is about 1,000 USD. Browsealoud is used by government, corporate, and educational institutions for speech enabling their website content and increasing access for individuals with literacy difficulties. Browsealoud can also be used for reading content in Virtual Learning Environments such as Blackboard. Jaws for Windows is a PC application that provides access to software applications and the Internet. With its internal software speech synthesizer and the computers sound card, information from the screen is read aloud. JAWS also outputs to refreshable Braille displays. ReadPlease2003 is freeware that reads any computer screen. A ReadPlease Plus version with extra features is available for about 60 USD. DOWNLOADS and LINKS
Claroread provides text to speech support tools that allow computer users to read and write independently. By making a computer speak any text with a human voice, text documents can be proofed out loud along with web pages, email and any other text. It can reduce reliance on teachers, partners, support staff and parents by giving its user the opportunity to achieve the same standards as everyone else. Text can be spoken at any point by highlighting individual sections of text and pressing Play, It is great for proofreading. Make Audio files from text documents for listening to on your PC or a portable audio player. In addition, ClaroRead adds a voice to the Windows Calculator. The software range from 190 to 500 USD. MathTalk allows the user to voice any math from prealgebra, algebra, trig, calculus, statistics, and beyond. This includes voicing graphs. Voice commands translate math into Braille using the Duxbury Braille Translator. MacSpeech Dictate was specially built for the Intel-Mac. This application works with Microsoft Word, Adobe Photoshop, QuarkXPress, and Apple programs such as iChat, Mail, iPhoto, and Keynote. Instead of using a mouse, or keyboard short cuts, a command is spoken and it is executed. DOWNLOADS and LINKS
Dragon Natually Speaking lets users write and send e-mail and instant messages, surf the web, and create documents all by simply speaking. Used by software developers and systems integrators to power Microsoft Windows applications with interactive diction features. Micosoft Office has a speech recognition feature built into the application. The feature must be installed and configured, but then it works with all of the Microsoft Office applicatons. Soothsayer is predictive text entry system that attempts to improve the ease and speed of textual input by predicting words. Word prediction consists in computing which word tokens or word completions are most likely to be entered next. Soothsayer is free software. It is distributed under the term of the General Public License. Co:Writer can be used to support students in any writing environment including email, blogs, message boards, and word processing. Co:Writer
accurately predicts phonetically spelled words while offering support to produce longer sentences with independence and confidence. DOWNLOADS and LINKS A-Prompt: This evaluation and repair tool is a research project at the University of Toronto in cooperation with the Trace Center and CAST. A demonstration version is available for download. On a single page, you must first identify data tables evaluating each table on the page. A-Prompt lists what it considers to be errors and offers a chance to correct each one. Buy Accessible: The US General Services Administration - the procurement arm of the federal government has put together a website and purchasing wizard that helps anyone determine and document what Section 508 requirements that apply to a particular acquisition.
California State University, Northridge (CSUN), Center on Disabilities: CSUN is committed to providing outstanding student services. CSUN disseminates information to students with disabilities and to those who provide services to people with disabilities through training programs, conferences, workshops, seminars, and electronic media. The Center also conducts applications-oriented research as a means of improving the lives of persons with disabilities and the professional skills of those who work with them. The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST): CAST is a non-profit educational organization whose mission is to expand opportunities for people with disabilities through innovative uses of computer technology. CAST pursues this mission through research, product development, and model educational programs that further universal design for learning. DOWNLOADS and LINKS
Gallaudet University's Technology Access Project: The Technology Access Project features research, services, and technology involving communications, telecommunications, and the deaf. The Gallaudet Research Institute conducts research projects in many areas involving deafness and deaf people. Michigan State University, Usability and Accessibility Center (UAC): The Center's primary goal is to provide leadership in evaluating and understanding the usability and accessibility of new interface technology, especially for persons with disabilities. The UAC provides heuristic reviews, accessibility evaluations, user testing, focus group facilitation, user centered design (UCD) consulting, training, and educational outreach. UAC clients include higher education, state and Federal Government, and private and public corporations. The Center's state-of-the-art facilities (training, focus group and usability lab) are also available for rental. Georgia Tech Center for Rehabilitation Technology: The primary mission of assistivetech.net is to provide increased access to information on assistive technology devices, services, and other disability-related resources for people with disabilities and the general public. The assistivetech.net is also provides online information on adaptive environments and community resources. Pennsylvania State University, Center for Academic Computing: The PSU Center for Academic Computing has created a Web Accessibility Checklist that web authors can use to design or modify accessible web pages. This checklist is based on the World Wide Web Consortium on Web
Accessibility Initiative guidelines. Rochester Institute of Technology, Equal Access to Software and Information (EASI): EASI's mission is to serve as a resource to the education community by providing information and guidance in the area of access to information technologies by individuals with disabilities. EASI is the recipient of two National Science Foundation grants to disseminate information on science, engineering, and math to people with disabilities. EASI presents effective online workshops and hosts frequent live presentations by accessibility experts. DOWNLOADS and LINKS Stanford University, The Archimedes Project: The Archimedes Project Total Access System seeks to promote equal access to information for individuals with disabilities by influencing the early design
stages of tomorrow's computer-based technologies. University of Toronto, The Adaptive Technology Resources Centre (ATRC): The ATRC works directly with information technology manufacturers and developers to influence the early design stages of tomorrow's computer-based technology. The ATRC applies a user-centered design approach to model and create solutions that are commercially feasible, operationally effective, and universally accessible. Areas of research include: Access to the Internet and the WWW (Browsers, authoring tools, content), Alternative computer display systems, Alternative computer control methods, Accessible distance education and videoconferencing, Gesture recognition for access to communication. University of Washington, DO-IT: Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology (DO-IT) and The Center for Universal Design at the University of Washington provide programs, resources and information on the areas of accessible web design, adaptive technology and universal design in order to maximize the independence, productivity and participation of people with disabilities. University of Wisconsin, Trace Research and Development Center: The Trace Center is a nonprofit research center that focuses on making off-the- shelf technologies and systems such as computers, the Internet, and information kiosks more accessible for everyone through the process known as universal, or accessible, design. Trace's mission is in great part funded through the NIDRR, Department of Education. Trace is designated as the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Information Technology Access. Trace has been widely regarded for many years as the leading research, development, and resource center in the area of access to computers by people with disabilities. Utah State University, Web Accessibility in Mind (Webaim): Webaim's goals is to improve accessibility to online learning opportunities for all people, in particular to improve accessibility for individuals with
disabilities who currently may have difficulty accessing postsecondary online learning opportunities. Webaim offers various "How To" information and support on creating accessible web sites. Web authors can find a Section checklist, sample HTML markup and various articles and courses on accessible web design. DOWNLOADS and LINKS West Virginia University, Job Accommodations Network: The Job Accommodation Network (JAN) is a service of the Department of Labor Office of Disability Employment Policy. JAN is an international, toll-free consulting service that provides information about job accommodations and the employability of people with disabilities. JAN also provides information regarding the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). JAN operates a Searchable Online Accommodations Resource (SOAR) to let user explore various accommodation options for persons with disabilities in the work setting.
El diccionario de la WBS y los enunciados detallados del trabajo proporcionan una identificación de los entregables. * Estimación de Costos - Entradas WBS VS. OBS * Organization Manufacturing Engineering Testing CAD-CAM-CAE WBS Paquete de Trabajo Cuenta de Control OBS...
critic criticize or criticism fanatic fanaticism romantic romanticism This ability of the <c> to have two different pronunciations allows us to spell these words the same way even though they are pronounced diffently.
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C6H6 Resonance Structure - Rearrange the bonding electrons Delocalised or Conjugated System - p-bonding electrons can move within the molecule Delocalisation, Resonance -Stabilise molecules, so make them less reactive High Carbon content - burn with a smoky flame In aromatic...