A View of Life - PC\|MAC

A View of Life - PC\|MAC

Adapting to Life on Land Chapter 21.1 Hickox: Baker High School 1 Characteristics of Plants Review Photosynthesis Video 1) Multicellular eukaryote 2) Nucleus has true nucleus 3) Membrane-bound organelles

4) Thick cell walls of cellulose 5) Stem and leaves have waxy waterproof coating called _______________. cuticle 6) The cuticle helps plants to reduce water loss Hickox: Baker High School 2 Cuticle of a stem Hickox: Baker High School 3

What are the basic plant organs? (234) leaf is a plant organ that grows from the 7) A ________ stem. 8) Photosynthesis usually occurs here 9) Plants have uniquely different shapes & sizes Photosynthesis RAP Plant video: Form and Structure Hickox: Baker High School 4

What are the basic plant organs? (234) Roots are the plant organ 10)_________ that absorbs water and nutrients 11) Tissues that transport 12) Anchor a plant to ground 13) Some function as food storage (sweet potatoes) Root hairs increase absorption area Hickox: Baker High School

5 Basic plant organs (234) 14) A __________ stem provides support for growth 15) Moves water from roots to leaves 16) Moves sugar (food) from leaves to roots 17) Contains tissues for transporting food, water and other materials 18) Sometimes contain food storage or photosynthesis Hickox: Baker High School

6 19)Most plants we are familiar with have stems made of tube-like, long cells for Vascular tissue transporting water and food called ______ Most of the vascular tissue is found in the trunk and stems 20) Vascular tissue consists Of two different types: ________: carries water up xylem

From roots Water Tra phloem _________: carries food nsport Down from leaves. Hickox: Baker High School Video 7 Hickox: Baker High School 8 Vascular and Nonvascular Plants

21) Plants that contain vascular tissue are called ___________ Vascular _________. plants 22) Plants can transport water a _________ long _________ distance 23) Plants have fibers of cellulose to be able to grow tall 24) Nonvascular plants include mosses, hornworts, and liverworts and do not contain vascular tissue. 25) Reproduce with alternations of generations 26) Nonvascular plants are only a few cells thick

27) Water and nutrients travel by osmosis 28) Live close to the ground Hickox: Baker High School 9 Nonvascular Plants What is a nonvascular plant? Need to be close water to __________ to (reproduce & photosynthesize) Limited to Low wet areas (streams,

______________ rivers, forest) Do not have roots; move water and Alternation of generations minerals by (osmosis & diffusion) antheridium Have ___________________ Male reproductive structure archegonium ______________ Hickox: Baker High School

Female reproductive structure 10 Hornwort (Nonvascular plant) Hickox: Baker High School 11 Nonvascular Plants Liverworts

Hickox: Baker High School 12 Nonvascular Plants Moss Reproduction in Mosses Video Hickox: Baker High School

13 What is a seed? (235) seed is a plant organ that contains an 29)A __________ embryo and food supply covered in a hard protective coat. 30) Protects the embryo from drying out diploid since they contain two of 31) Seed are __________, each kind of chromosome. 32) In non-seed plants such as in mosses and fern, the sperm require a film of water on the plant in

order to reach the EGG. This is why moist habitats are required Hickox: Baker High School 14 Seed Embryo Seed coat Hickox: Baker High School

Food supply 15 COTYLEDON What is alternation of generations in plants? (235) 33) Includes two stages, one generation is the ____________ generation, which produces gametophyte gametes of ___________ haploid cells. 34) During the sporophyte generation,spores _______

are produced, which are _________. diploid 35) In non-seed vascular plants such as ferns, spores are released and grow into ____________ gametophyte plants, producing haploid _______ and _________ gametes. male female Hickox: Baker High School

16 Alternation of Generations Asexual reproduction (2n) Sexual reproduction (1n) Hickox: Baker High School 17

Fern Life Cycle (alternation of generations) 36) In non-seed vascular plants such as ferns, spores are released and grow into haploid gametophyte plants, produce male and female gametes. Hickox: Baker High School 18

Hickox: Baker High School 19 Hickox: Baker High School 20 Hickox: Baker High School 21 Hickox: Baker High School

22 Hickox: Baker High School 23 Hickox: Baker High School 24 Hickox: Baker High School 25

Hickox: Baker High School 26 Hickox: Baker High School 27 Hickox: Baker High School 28

Hickox: Baker High School 29 Hickox: Baker High School 30 Alternation of Generations 31 Hickox: Baker High School Mature Fern

diploid Sorus under frond Sporangium with spore haploid Egg and Sperm unite producing Sporophyte Young sporophyte

Spore Germinates Prothallus Archegonia & antheridium on Prothallus Hickox: Baker High School 32 Non-seed Vascular Plants 22.2 What is the structure of ferns? 1. (has roots, stems, and leaves)

2. The main stem is underground and is called a ________. rhizome 3. On the under area of a frond, the leaves you may see tiny brown circles. These clusters are sporeproducing __________. sporangia Each cluster forms a _______. sorus Hickox: Baker High School 33 Non-seed Vascular Plants 22.2

Sporangia (spores) Frond Under frond - Sorus sporangia Hickox: Baker High School 34

What is a plant? (21.1 Adapting to Life on Land) 18. How do algae and land plants take in substances? Algae live in water and absorb dissolved substances directly into their cells. Most land plants absorb dissolved substances from the soil. Hickox: Baker High School 35 Survey of the Plant Kingdom 21.2 (238) 37) Phylogeny of Plants (evolutionary history) Scientists who study plants are ________

Botanists 38) Non-seed Plants: use spores to reproduce. 39) Hepaticophytes: non-seed plants called liverworts; nonvascular, use osmosis and diffusion, to absorb water & nutrients 40) May be ancestors to all plants. Hickox: Baker High School 36 Survey of the Plant Kingdom 21.2 (239) 41) Anthocerophytes are very small, nonvascular and grow in damp shady habitats. They rely on osmosis

and diffusion to transport nutrients. Are also called _____________ Hornworts (resemble horns of animals) Hickox: Baker High School 37 Survey of the Plant Kingdom 21.2 (239) 42) Bryophytes: are the mosses; are nonvascular; have cells that transport water and sugar. Usually less than 5 cm. tall. Mosses

Hickox: Baker High School 38 Vascular plants 43) Lycophytes: Vascular plants that have stems, roots, and leaves. Another name are the ______________ Club mosses Hickox: Baker High School 39 Seed Plants:

44) Seed Plants: Have a seed that consists of a plant embryo and a food supply and covered by a hard protective coat. All seed plants have vascular tissue Hickox: Baker High School 40 Seed Plants What is a seed plant? 45) Many Vascular plant that produces seeds. 46) Seeds are surrounded by fruit or scales of a cone.

47) In the sporophyte, the spores develop into male and female gametophytes. 48) The male gametophyte is inside the ______ Pollen_______ grain 49) The female gametophyte produces the egg cell inside the __________. ovule 50) The ovule form the _______ seed after fertilization. (the union of egg and sperm). 51) After fertilization, the zygote develops into an embryo. Hickox: Baker High School

41 Seed Plants 22.3 (251) Embryos of seed plants include one or more ____________. cotyledons food Cotyledons : store ____________for

the developing embryo. Cotyledons are leaf-like structures on the plants stems, when the plant comes through the soil. Hickox: Baker High School 42 Vascular plants Cycads: 52) Look like palm trees but are not. 53) Produce male and female cones ________, are

scaly structures that support male or female reproductive structures. Commonly called ________________ Sega palms Hickox: Baker High School 43 Cycads Hickox: Baker High School

44 Survey of the Plant Kingdom 21.2 (241) Ginkgophytes: Ginkgo biloba are small trees with fan-shaped leaves. Male and female reproductive structures on separate trees. 45 Hickox: Baker High School Ginkgo biloba: male

Ginkgo biloba: female Ginkgo biloba: sperm Hickox: Baker High School 46 Conifers 54) 55) 56) 57)

cone bearing trees. Conifers are _________ Pine, fir, cypress, and redwood Produce seeds in cones Many have needlelike leaves Hickox: Baker High School 47 Seed Plants 22.3 (251) What are the advantages of seeds? 58) A seed is an embryo and its food supply is

Make change in inside tough outer coating. notes!!!!!!! 59) Two groups: those whose seeds are not protected by fruit are called _____________ gymnosperms or naked seeds. 60) Seeds that are protected by fruit are called ______________. A fruit includes ripened angiosperms 48 ovary of a flower. Hickox: Baker High School

Douglas Fir: Conifer Hickox: Baker High School 49 Giant Sequoia: Conifer Hickox: Baker High School 50

Pacific yew: Conifer Common Juniper: Conifer Pine Tree: Conifer 51 Hickox: Baker High School Add to your notes!

Anthophytes: Anthophytes: Only Flowering plants Intro to Gymno and Angio Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms Plant reproduction Methods Video

Produce flowers from which fruits develop A fruit usually contains one or more seeds Flowers and Fruits 52 Hickox: Baker High School Anatomy of a Flower 22.3

pistil Hickox: Baker High School 53 113. anther pollen filament

Stamen Male parts: Hickox: Baker High School 54 ovary Pistil Female parts: Style (pollen tube)

Stigma (sticky) Hickox: Baker High School 55 ovary anther filament Pollen lands on stigma, travels down pollen tube until it units with

ovary at fertilization. Hickox: Baker High School style stigma 56 Monocot vs. Dicots What are monocot and dicots?

61) Monocotyledons have one seed leaf or monocot. Monocots also have 1 food source called a cotyledon. 62) Dicotyledons have two seed leaves or dicot. Dicots also have 2 food sources are called cotyledons. Monocots vs Dicots Video Hickox: Baker High School 57 Flowering plants are either monocots or dicots Seed

Root Stem Leaf Flower one cotyledon in seed Monocots

root xylem and phloem in a ring vascular bundles scattered in stem leaf veins form a parallel pattern flower parts in threes and multiples of three root phloem between arms of

xylem vascular bundles in a distinct ring leaf veins form a net pattern flower parts in fours or fives and their multiples two cotyledons in seed

Dicots Hickox: Baker High School 58 Monocot versus Dicot Monocots (Single cotyledon)

Root vascular tissue occurs in scattered. Parallel leaf venation. Flowers in 3s or multiple of 3s Dicots (Two cotyledons) Xylem and phloem ringed Netted leaf venation. Flowers in 4s or 5s or multiples of 4s or 5s Hickox: Baker High School 59

Life Span of a Plant 63). Plants that live for only one year or less; they sprout from seeds, grow, reproduce and then die are ___________. annuals 64) Most are green stem and have no woody tissue. beans 65) Examples are corn _______, peas, _______ Hickox: Baker High School 60

Life Span of a Plant (255) 66) Plants that have two year life spans are biennials During the first year _________. biennials grow leaves and develop a strong root system. During the second year, food stored in the roots is used to produce new shoot, flowers, and seeds. carrots beets, and 67) Examples are _________, _______ turnips Hickox: Baker High School

61 Life Span of a Plant (255) 116. perennials live for several years. 68)___________ They produce flowers and seed periodically, usually once a year. They have woody stems and roots remain dormant. 69)Examples are __________ strawberries , ___________, and _____________ asparagus

Brambles Hickox: Baker High School 62 Plant Tissues 70) Sclerenchyma cells are thick and rigid. 71) Provide support and strength 72) Source of fiber for rope & linen. Plant Tissues Epidermis functions like the skin of an animal. 73) ___________ 74) Protects with waxy cuticle (prevents water loss)

Hickox: Baker High School 63 Plant Tissues Stomata 75) __________ are openings in the leaf that control the exchange of gases. What Gasses? ___________What Molecules? _____ 76) Two ___________ guard cells surround each stoma and controls the flow of water vapor from the leaf.

STOMATA VIDEO 64 Hickox: Baker High School Stomata Hickox: Baker High School 65 Transport Tissues What do vascular tissue transport?

Xylem 77) __________ is made of tubelike cells that transport water. Phloem(xylem up) 78) _________ transports sugars in long tubes arranged end to end with sieve plates. (phloem down) 66 Hickox: Baker High School Hickox: Baker High School 67

Roots, Stems, and Leaves Roots 79) Are plant organs 80) Anchor a plant 81) Absorb water and dissolved minerals 82) Contain vascular tissues 83)____________ taproots are single thick structures with smaller branching roots. 84) Store food 85) Examples are beets and carrots 68 Hickox: Baker High School

Root Hairs Increase Surface Area 69 Hickox: Baker High School Roots, Stems, and Leaves 23.2 Roots Fibrous roots have many small branching roots 85). ____________ that grow from a central point. Grass is a good example 86) Prop roots, found in corn plants begin above ground and help support. ___________

__________ ____________ Tap roots Fibrous roots Prop roots Hickox: Baker High School 70 Roots, Stems, and Leaves 23.2 What is transpiration? 87) The loss of water through the stomata is called ________________

transpiration 88) The waxy cuticle and stomata help reduce water loss Transpiration video Hickox: Baker High School 71 Chapter 22.1 Reinforcement and Study Guide page 97 9. Nonvascular plants are not as common or as widespread as vascular plants (B) the life functions of nonvascular plants require a close association with water. 10. The life cycle of nonvascular plants includes an alternation of

generation between a (c) diploid sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte) 11. Fossil and genetic evidence suggests that the first land plants were (C) liverworts. Chapter 22.2 Reinforcement and Study Guide page 98 Unlike vascular plants, the spore-producing (1) sporophyte is the dominant generation in vascular plants. A major advance in vascular plants was the adaptation of (2) leaves to form structures that protect the developing (3) reproductive cells or zygote. Hickox: Baker High School 72 What is a plant? (21.1 Adapting to Life on Land)

(Alternation of Generations) (6 18) The lives of all plants consist of two alternating stages, or (6) generations. The gametophyte generation of a plant is responsible for development of (7) gametes. All cells of the gametophyte, including the gametes are haploid. The (9) sporophyte generation is responsible for the production of spores. All cells of the sporophyte are (10) diploid . The spores are produced by the sporophyte plant by (11) meiosis and are, therefore, haploid. 12. The lives of seed plants include two generations that alternate. 13. The generation of a plant responsible for producing gametes is the gametophyte generation. 14. Gametophyte spores are haploid and sporophyte tissue

cells are diploid. Hickox: Baker High School 73 Chapter 22.2 Reinforcement and Study Guide page 99 16. The hollow-stemmed horsetail appears to be jointed with scalelike leaves surrounding each joint. 17. The most recognized generation of ferns is the sporophyte generation. 18. The gametophyte in most ferns is a thin, flat structure. 19. In most ferns, the main stem, called a rhizome is underground. It contains many starch-filled cells for storage. 20. The leaves of a fern are called fronds and grow upward from the

rhizome. 21. Fronds are often divided into pinnae , which are attached to a central rachis. 22. Ferns were the first vascular plants to evolve leaves with branching veins of vascular ranchis. 23. The common names for the seedless vascular plants, lycophyta, arthrophyta, and pterophyta are club or spike mosses, horsetails, ferns. Hickox: Baker High School 74 Chapter 22.1 Reinforcement an Study Guide page 97 1. Nonvascular plants are successful in habitats with adequate water.

2. The gametophyte generation is dominant in nonvascular plants. 3. Sperm are produced in male reproductive structures called antheridia, and the eggs are produced in female reproductive structures called archegonia. 4. Mosses have colorless multicellular structures called rhizoids, which help anchor the stem to the soil. (underground stem) 5. Most liverworts have cuticles, or an oily or a shiny surface that helps reduce evaporation of the water from the plants tissue. 6. Liverworts occur in many environments and include two groups: the thallose liverworts and the leafy liverworts. 7. One unique feature of hornworts is the presence of one to several chloroplasts in each cell. 8. The common names for the nonvasculare plants in bryophyta, ehpaticophyta, and anthocerphyta are mosses,

75 liverworts,hornworts.Hickox: Baker High School Chapter 22.2 Reinforcement and Study Guide page 98 In some non-seed vascular plants, spore-bearing leaves form a compact cluster called a(n) (4) strobilus . Spores are released from this compact cluster. These spores then grow to form the gametophyte, called a(n) (5) prothallus. This structure is relatively small and lives in or on soil. The prothallus then forms (6) antheridia, male reproductive structures, and (7) archegonia, female reproductive structures. (8) Sperm are released from an antheridium and swim through a film of water to the (9) egg in an archegonium. (10) Fertilization occurs and a large, dominant sporophyte plant

develops from the (11) zygote. Do not grade 12,13,14,15 12. (false) The leafy stems of lycophytes resemble clubs, and their reproductive structures are moss shaped. 13. (true) The leaves of lycophytes occur as pairs, whorls, or spirals along the stem. 14. (false) Lycophytes are simple vascular plants with creeping leaves. Baker High School 76 15. (true) The club moss Hickox: is commonly called ground pine because it

What is a plant? (21.1 Adapting to Life on Land) 15. Non-seed plants release spores into the environment that grow into gametophytes. 16. What is the difference between vascular and nonvascular plants? Vascular plants have long, tube-like cells that form tissues that transport food, water, and other materials. Nonvascular plants have thin tissues that allow nutrients and water to travel from one cell to another by osmosis and diffusion. 17. Some land plants produce seeds. What is their function? How do they differ from spores? Seeds protect the embryos and spores protect haploid cells and keep them from drying out. Seeds have a diploid embryo and a food supply that are covered with a protective coat.

Spores have a haploid cell with a hard protective covering. Hickox: Baker High School 77

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