A Round Wire Multifilament HTS conductor for High Field ...

A Round Wire Multifilament HTS conductor for High Field ...

High Field Superconducting Magnets for Accelerators David Larbalestier Applied Superconductivity Center, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL on behalf of the Superconducting Magnet Technology Community in the DOE Labs, the US University Program, US industry and CERN (special thanks to Lance Cooley, Soren Prestemon, Giorgio Apollinari, Mark Palmer, Luca Bottura and Dave Sutter for input) Talk to P5 at BNL Tuesday December 17 Tevatron to a Muon Collider Slide 1 David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 Talk charge from Steve Ritz 1. The opportunities of the next decade 2. The way that present investments feed the long term 3. The use of this technology by other fields 4. Other important stuff for P5 0. An important sidebar first..

Slide 2 David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 0: An important sidebar.. Applications in liquid nitrogen at 77 K are still very rare More than 95% of all superconductor sold is still Nb-Ti with Tc of 9 K Applications are determined by high Jc, Je and Hirr rather than by high Tc Slide 3 120 100 Irreversibility Field (T) Higher Tc superconductors are a persistent dream of the condensed matter community.. Cuprates can superconduct up to 130 K

80 60 Bi-2212 RW (^) YBCO (^) 40 MgB2 (^) 20 Nb3Sn Bi-2223 (^) Nb-Ti 0 0 20 40 60

Temperature (K) The dream: escape from bottom left corner to the upper and the right Conductors of exotic materialsDavid are difficult! Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 80 0: Magnet Conductors so far. 1. Nb47Ti conductor- thousands of 8 mm diameter Nb47Ti filaments in pure Cu (0.8 mm dia.), easily cabled to operate at 10100 kA 20mm Cu LHC conductor < 0.1 mm 2 mm Ag 1 mm HTS ~ 30 nm LMO

~ 30 nm Homo-epi MgO ~ 10 nm IBAD MgO 50mm Hastelloy substrate 20mm Cu 3. REBCO coated conductor extreme texture (single crystal by the mile) for maximum GB transparency (2007) 4. Bi-2212 high Jc without macroscopic texture (2012)! 2. Bi-2223 the first HTS conductor uniaxial texture developed by deformation and reaction (1995- today) Slide 4 David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 0: Large magnets are better protected when operated at high current cables! Easy path to 2212 cables through the standard Rutherford cable REBCO cables are harder (Coated Conductor is a single filament) but

possible (IRL, KIT, CORC, twisted stack Cables vital for 60 T (MIT) Bi-2212 Rutherford cables (Arno Godeke LBNL) with mullite insulation sleeve REBCO coated conductor cable wound in many layers helically on a round form hybrid at the NHMFL, an LHC energy upgrade and a neutrino machine based on a Muon Collider at Fermilab Other variants too: e.g. Roebel cable Danko van der Laan Slide 5 David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 0: Strong feedback is vital for a

secure superconducting magnet technology A real applications pull that can generate continuous conductor orders Conductors worth continuous orders Slide 6 HTS Coils as R&D magnet Test Beds 27T with SuperPower 34T 2212 NHMFL 35 T REBCO NHMFL Industrial HTS Magnet conductors Systems REBCO 16T BNL, 32 T NHMFL Bi-2212 Neutron scattering facilities

Bi-2223 HE-LHC, Muon Colliders 30-35 T NMR + MagSci zoo David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 0. The Innovative Culture of Advanced Superconductor R&D Put in place by the Tigner sub-panel (1980) of HEPAP key recommendations Intended to have a large (but interactive) university-driven effort Superconducting program was driven by materials development in an annual workshop bringing together magnet builders (DOE labs and industry), superconducting wire manufacturers (industry) and materials researchers (mainly universities) 30th anniversary of this annual workshop in St Petersburg FL in November 2013 (85 attendees) Outcomes: Slide 7 Nb-Ti fully optimized for SSC in late 1980s taken up by MRI industry and later by LHC Nb3Sn hugely improved since 2000 with coupled conductormagnet program driven by LARP for high-Lumi LHC

HTS materials have (2013) had a major breakthrough in round wire Bi-2212 application to HE-LHC R&D David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 Talk charge from Steve Ritz 1. The opportunities of the next decade High Energy LHC Muon Collider HTS-driven Fe magnets lower operating costs 2. The way that present investments feed the long term All circular machines of last 30 years (Tevatron, HERA, RHIC, LHC) have used superconducting magnet technology driven by the AARD program starting in about 1982 MC, HE-LHC and much other relies on the innovative culture made possible by 30 years of strong Advanced Accelerator R&D 3. The use of this technology by other fields

MRI was enabled by the Nb-Ti advances instigated by Tevatron and SSC ITER has benefited hugely by the Nb3Sn developments cultured after SSC High field NMR for bio now at 1 GHz, looking to go to 1.3-1.5 GHz 4. Other important stuff for P5 Slide 8 NRC panels COHMAG (2004) and MagSci (2013) have spoken to David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 1. Size and field trade off in HE-LHC Geneva PS SPS LHC 8 T: Nb-Ti, 16 T: Nb3Sn, 20 T: HTS LHC 27 km, 8.33 T 14 TeV (c.o.m.) HE-LHC 27 km, 20 T

33 TeV (c.o.m.) VHE-LHC 80 km, 20 T 100 TeV (c.o.m.) Luca Bottura (CERN) MT23 talk Slide 9 David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 VHE-LHC 100 km, 16 T 100 TeV (c.o.m.) Mark Palmer (FNAL) P5 yesterday requires better Nb3Sn, HTS, improved magnets Slide 10 David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 Slide 11 Key collaborations on HTS come from BSCCo (2212) and the Coated Conductor Round Table on REBCO conductors David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 Talk charge from Steve Ritz 1. The opportunities of the next decade

High Energy LHC Muon Collider HTS-driven Fe magnets lower operating costs 2. The way that present investments feed the long term All circular machines of last 30 years (Tevatron, HERA, RHIC, LHC) have used superconducting magnet technology driven by the AARD program starting in about 1982 MC, HE-LHC and much other relies on the innovative culture made possible by 30 years of strong Advanced Accelerator R&D 3. The use of this technology by other fields MRI was enabled by the Nb-Ti advances instigated by Tevatron and SSC ITER has benefited hugely by the Nb3Sn developments cultured after SSC

High field NMR for bio now at 1 GHz, looking to go to 1.3-1.5 GHz 4. Other important stuff for P5 Slide 12 NRC panels COHMAG (2004) and MagSci (2013) have spoken to David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 2. The LTSW drove Nb3Sn development LARP magnets followed US-CDP ITER wires HLLHC wires Data courtesy of J. Parrell (Oxford Superconductor, Carteret, NJ) Slide 13 David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 2. Dream Nb3Sn wire is in sight Performance JC (kA/mm ) Peak field Cost

2 PIT 192 RRP 108/127 Practical wire JC > 2.5 kA/mm2 Dfil < 3040 mm RRR > 150 Dfil (mm) Magnetization Field Quality Stability 1 RRP 150/169 2 2.5 PIT 3 3.5 4 RRP

50 100 1.5 10 20 target 200 Dream wire target performance: JC > 3 kA/mm2 Dfil < 20 mm RRR > 150 150 100 50 RRR (-) Stability Protection Luca Bottura (CERN) MT23 talk US wire made by OST is closest to the dream Slide 14

David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 2. 20 T: requires HTS conductors Je 600 A/mm2 20+ T 16 10 T T REBCO tapes developed for electric utility applications (several hundred millions) versus recent HEP-driven development (so far about $5M) for Bi-2212 Slide 15 David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 Talk charge from Steve Ritz 1. The opportunities of the next decade High Energy LHC Muon Collider HTS-driven Fe magnets lower operating costs 2. The way that present investments feed the long term

All circular machines of last 30 years (Tevatron, HERA, RHIC, LHC) have used superconducting magnet technology driven by the AARD program starting in about 1982 MC, HE-LHC and much other relies on the innovative culture made possible by 30 years of strong Advanced Accelerator R&D 3. The use of this technology by other fields MRI was enabled by the Nb-Ti advances instigated by Tevatron and SSC ITER has benefited hugely by the Nb3Sn developments cultured after SSC High field NMR for bio now at 1 GHz, looking to go to 1.3-1.5 GHz 4. Other important stuff for P5 Slide 16 NRC panels COHMAG (2004) and MagSci (2013) have spoken to David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 3: Nb-Ti big Industry Tevatron instigated MRI sustained!

Nb-Ti ingot handling at Wah Chang Slide 17 David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 3. Nb-Ti MRI Magnets made the Superconducting Industry Closed (1-3 Tesla) and open (0.3T) MRI magnets both use NbTi with a transition temperature (Tc) of only 9K, ~-450F. Open, low-field MRI Nb-Ti magnets might be replaced by MgB2 if present developments continue Slide 18 David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 3. Nb-Ti and Nb3Sn have enabled 1 GHz proton NMR Round wire 2212 35 YBCO coated conductor

30 25 Field (T) Bi-2212 (^) 20 MgB2 (^) 15 YBCO (^) 10 5 Nb3Sn Bi-2223 (^) Nb-Ti Bi-2212 Tape 0 0 20

40 60 80 Temperature (K) Higher fields envisaged by MagSci require HTS Slide 19 State of the art Nb3Sn 1000 MHz NMR magnet, operating in Lyon France in persistent state at 23.5T David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 3. ITER has made tonnage breakout for Nb3Sn only 50 years after the decisive 1960 experiment ITER uses 600 tonnes of Nb3Sn Slide 20 Phys Rev Letts 6, 89 (1961), submitted January 9, 1961, published February 1, 1961!

David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 Talk charge from Steve Ritz 1. The opportunities of the next decade High Energy LHC Muon Collider HTS-driven Fe magnets lower operating costs 2. The way that present investments feed the long term All circular machines of last 30 years (Tevatron, HERA, RHIC, LHC) have used superconducting magnet technology driven by the AARD program starting in about 1982 MC, HE-LHC and much other relies on the innovative culture made possible by 30 years of strong Advanced Accelerator R&D 3. The use of this technology by other fields

MRI was enabled by the Nb-Ti advances instigated by Tevatron and SSC ITER has benefited hugely by the Nb3Sn developments cultured after SSC High field NMR for bio now at 1 GHz, looking to go to 1.3-1.5 GHz 4. Other important stuff for P5 Slide 21 NRC panels COHMAG (2004) and MagSci (2013) have spoken to David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 4. High Field Magnet Opportunities in many sectors http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=183 55 High Magnetic Field Science and Its Application in the United States: Current Status and Future Directions (Halperin Chair Met in 2012, report about to issue Report released November 2013 Note the cover image! Bi-2212 developed under OHEP support! Slide 22

David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 4. Bi-2212 developed by NHMFL, DOE-HEP labs and Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) twisted, round, filamentary conductor fully competitive with any other HTS in JE Fine filament twisted conductor is ideal for high homogeneity NMR and accelerator magnets From the cover of the MagSci report (DCL et al. arXiv 1305.1269 to appear Nature Materials 2014) Slide 23 Bi-2212 conductor support by DOEOHEP: an outcome of Bismuth Strand and Cable Collaboration (BSCCo) David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 4. High Magnetic Field Science and Its Application in the United States: Current Status and Future Directions The recommendations (Halperin (Harvard) Chair Consider regional 32 T superconducting magnets at 3-4

locations optimized for easy user access. Establish at least 3 US 1.2 GHz NMR instruments (planned commercial) for broad access and plan for ~1.5 GHz class system development Establish high field (~30 T) facilities at neutron and photon scattering facilities Construct a 20 T MRI instrument (for R&D) A 40 T allsuperconducting magnet should be designed and constructed, A 60 T DC hybrid magnet that will capitalize on the success of the current 45 T hybrid magnet at the NHMFLTallahassee should be designed and built. Very strong synergy with HEP goals (LHC energy upgrade and Muon Accelerator) for high field use needs HTS strand AND cable development Slide 24 David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 4. The OHEP HTS high field magnet program is multi-dimensional and intensely collaborative Magnet groups at BNL, FNAL and LBNL University program at FSU, OSU, TAMU Strong collaborations with CERN through EUCARD2 A strong industrial manufacturing base (R&D aided by Conductor Development Program (CDP) at OST and Luvata

A strong SBIR program at 5-10 companies at any one stage (e.g. nGimat, Muons Inc, Supercon, Supramagnetics, Metamaterials, Advanced Cable Technology (ACT) Strong HTS companies AMSC (MA) and SuperPower (NY) and OST (NJ) Slide 25 David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013 Summary to P5 questions 1. The opportunities of the next decade High Energy LHC Muon Collider HTS-driven Fe magnets lower operating costs 2. The way that present investments feed the long term All circular machines of last 30 years (Tevatron, HERA, RHIC, LHC) have used superconducting magnet technology driven by the AARD program starting in about 1982 MC, HE-LHC and much more relies on the innovative

culture encouraged by 30 years of strong Advanced Accelerator R&D in OHEP 3. The use of this technology by other fields MRI was enabled by the Nb-Ti advances instigated by Tevatron and SSC ITER has benefited hugely by the Nb3Sn developments cultured after SSC High field NMR for bio now at 1 GHz, looking to go to 1.3-1.5 GHz 4. Other important stuff for P5 Slide 26 NRC panels COHMAG (2004) and MagSci (2013) have spoken to the great values of high magnetic fields in multiple areas and David Larbalestier, P5 Review Brookhaven National Lab, December 15-17, 2013

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