9/11 and Inter-american Relations Ii

9/11 and Inter-american Relations Ii

THE RISE OF THE NEW LEFT: WHY? WHY VENEZUELA? An apparently stable two-party democracy Rmulo Betancourt and Generation of 1928 Pact of Punto Fijo (1958) No military threat Awash in petroleum (Venezuela Saudita)

OPEC (1960) PdVSA Positive international profile Socialist International Diplomacy in Central America/1980s SEEDS OF RESENTMENT Socioeconomic inequality

Reliance on state patronage Petroleum as devils excrement Concentration of power and wealth Rural-to-urban migration Partidocracia: Absence of clear programs Closed-list slates

Ageing leadership POLITICAL DECAY Carlos Andrs Prez (CAP) Neoliberal reforms and caracazo Attempted coups 1992 Impeachment 1993 Voter disenchantment

Turnout: 96% (1973) to 60% (1990s) AD + COPEI vote share: 90% (1970s-80s) to 45% (1993) to 11% (1998) Rafael Caldera wins as independent in 1993 THE BOLIVARIAN REVOLUTION Domestic agenda: Strengthening state Redistributing wealth Monopolizing power

Global agenda: Opposing U.S. hegemony Building continental solidarity Becoming leader of developing world Consolidating oil-producing alliances INTERNAL WEAKNESSES Judiciary, rule of law and due process Absence of representative institutionse.g., courts, legislature, unions Concentration of presidential power Chvezs own charisma

Economic inefficiencies NB: defeat in November 07 referendum, victory the following year RECENT ISSUES Leadership: Tightening circle of advisers Accusations of corruption Economic performance: Rationing of water and electricity Attempted price controls Foreign policy:

Threats of war with Colombia Rise of Lula (and Dilma) and Brazil Curtailing opposition: Redistricting for elections of National Assembly Shutdown of RCTV International WHY ELSEWHERE? Juxtaposition of inequality and wealth Organizational basis for mass mobilization Timing (why ca. 2005?): Changing approach to electoral politics (rejection of revolutionary option)

Constraints and moderation resulting from pacts International incentives: Respect for democracy Neoliberal economics and regional integration the same factors that prevent the left from pursuing more radical economic policies are also responsible for the ability of the left to remain in power without provoking antisystemic behavior on the part of opposing political forces.

AND THE FUTURE? the left is back, and it will remain competitive in much of Latin America well into the future Threats and challenges: Corruption scandals Concerns with public safety Break with policy moderation Politicization of military The future of the left in Latin America will largely depend on its ability to strike a balance between the pragmatic need for moderation and the moral imperative to pursue strategies for poverty reduction, redistribution, and development.

UPDATE: POVERTY LEVELS 1980 1990 2002 2010 __%__ N __(millions)__ 40.5 48.3

44.0 32.1 136 200 221 180 CHANGES IN INEQUALITY 1980-2000 = rising increasing lower-higher skilled gap uneven effects of international trade absence of public policies 2000-2006 = declining (slightly)

reduced lower-higher skilled gap (due to education) government programs (including remittances) 2007-09 unclear impact of global crash still high by world standards QUESTIONS 1. Do these developments mean that radical policies are unnecessary?

2. Or might they provide more opportunity for radical policy (e.g., land reform)? 3. Does moderation mean survival of the leftor the extinction of the left? 4. What impact might come from political change in Cubaor Venezuela?

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Textboook - PC\|MAC

    Textboook - PC\|MAC

    Textboook Unit 1 pages 4-5. How do I greet friends? How do I greet adults and acquaintances?
  • Counting Significant Figures

    Counting Significant Figures

    23.4 g (2 sig figs) 555001.0100 atoms (3 sig figs) 2001.0345mL (5 sig figs) 74.221g (3 sig figs) 3.100mm (3 sig figs) 0.001201kg (3 sig figs) Rules for Calculating with Significant Figures Writing a Lab Report Introduction Background Information What...
  • Family Group: multi-family therapy in schools Mark Griffiths

    Family Group: multi-family therapy in schools Mark Griffiths

    Neil Dawson and Brenda McHugh were 2008 NHS Innovations Award winners for Mental Heath. Morris: Outcomes for 50 families receiving intervention from the MFEC were compared with a control group of 28 who had access to a range of interventions,...
  • Poetic Forms - Weebly

    Poetic Forms - Weebly

    Textbook. Why does Mickey Mouse have four fingers? Conversations with many cartoonists, animators, and Disney employees confirm that Mickey Mouse has four fingers because it is convenient for the artists and animators who have drawn him.
  • 如何申请在中国使用的认证 - chinaembassy.org.sg

    如何申请在中国使用的认证 - chinaembassy.org.sg

    Civil action papers. Foster care power of attorney. Edu-trust educational qualifications (private University or College) Privite hospital medical certificate (private hospitals or clinic) Proof of legal representative. Director's resolution. Minutes of company meeting . Specimen signature. Legal opinions. Testimonial papers...
  • Hygiene and Food Safety - Homesciencetges

    Hygiene and Food Safety - Homesciencetges

    Food hygiene -the careful handling of food in a way that will keep it safe and free from all contaminants. Hygiene at diff stages: Purchase of food-Food should be fresh ,good colour and desirable flavour . Avoid food with heavy...
  • Impacts from reclaimed water irrigation on surface and ground ...

    Impacts from reclaimed water irrigation on surface and ground ...

    uses. Part of hydraulic application rate water balance to reduce the total volume of effluent for disposal field and storage ponds. Demonstrating Firm Reclaimed Water Demand. An applicant establishes that reclaimed water is firm when the applicant:
  • Russia - Weebly

    Russia - Weebly

    Russian czars were basically kings that ruled as dictators. When a czar died, his son became the new czar. http://mrsmaciver12history.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/ac ...