1 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 2 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 What does rate of reaction mean? The speed of different chemical reactions varies hugely. Some reactions are very fast and others are very slow. The speed of a reaction is called the rate of the reaction. What is the rate of these reactions? rusting
baking explosion slow fast very fast 3 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Rates of reaction
Why are some reactions faster than others? 4 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Reactions, particles and collisions Reactions take place when particles collide with a certain amount of energy. The minimum amount of energy needed for the particles to react is called the activation energy, and is different for each reaction. The rate of a reaction depends on two things: the frequency of collisions between particles the energy with which particles collide.
If particles collide with less energy than the activation energy, they will not react. The particles will just bounce off each other. 5 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Changing the rate of reactions Anything that increases the number of successful collisions between reactant particles will speed up a reaction. What factors affect the rate of reactions? increased temperature increased concentration of dissolved reactants, and increased pressure of gaseous reactants
increased surface area of solid reactants use of a catalyst. 6 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Slower and slower! Reactions do not proceed at a steady rate. They start off at a certain speed, then get slower and slower until they stop. As the reaction progresses, the concentration of reactants decreases. This reduces the frequency of collisions between particles and so the reaction slows down.
0% 25% reactants product 7 of 39 50% 75% 100% percentage completion of reaction
Boardworks Ltd 2007 Graphing rates of reaction 8 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Reactantproduct mix 9 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 How can rate of reaction be measured?
Measuring the rate of a reaction means measuring the change in the amount of a reactant or the amount of a product. What can be measured to calculate the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid? magnesium + hydrochloric magnesium acid chloride
+ hydrogen The amount of hydrochloric acid used up (cm3/min). The amount of magnesium chloride produced (g/min). The amount of hydrogen product (cm3/min). 10 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Setting up rate experiments What equipment is needed to investigate the rate of hydrogen production? glass tube
conical flask rubber connecter gas syringe rubber bung hydrochloric acid magnesium 11 of 39
Boardworks Ltd 2007 Calculating rate of reaction from graphs hydrogen produced (cm3) How can the rate of reaction be calculated from a graph? 70 60 x 50 rate of reaction = y x
40 30 y 20 10 0 0 10 20 30
time (seconds) 40 50 The gradient of the graph is equal to the initial rate of reaction at that time rate of reaction = 45 cm3 rate of reaction = 2.25 cm3/s 20 s 12 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 The reactant/product mix
13 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Collisions and reactions: summary 14 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 15 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007
Temperature and collisions How does temperature affect the rate of particle collision? 16 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Effect of temperature on rate The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of a reaction. In many reactions, a rise in temperature of 10 C causes the rate of reaction to approximately double. Why does increased temperature increase the rate of reaction? At a higher temperature, particles have more energy. This means
they move faster and are more likely to collide with other particles. When the particles collide, they do so with more energy, and so the number of successful collisions increases. 17 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Temperature and particle collisions 18 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007
Temperature and batteries Why are batteries more likely to rundown more quickly in cold weather? At low temperatures the reaction that generates the electric current proceeds more slowly than at higher temperatures. This means batteries are less likely to deliver enough current to meet demand. 19 of 39
Boardworks Ltd 2007 How does temperature affect rate? The reaction between sodium thiosulfate and hydrochloric acid produces sulfur. sodium hydrochloric thiosulfate + acid Na2S2O3 (aq) +
+ water + H2O (l) Sulfur is solid and so it turns the solution cloudy. How can this fact be used to measure the effect of temperature on rate of reaction? 20 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 The effect of temperature on rate
21 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 22 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Effect of concentration on rate of reaction The higher the concentration of a dissolved reactant, the faster the rate of a reaction. Why does increased concentration increase the rate of reaction? At a higher concentration, there are more particles in the same amount of space. This means that the particles are
more likely to collide and therefore more likely to react. lower concentration 23 of 39 higher concentration Boardworks Ltd 2007 Concentration and particle collisions 24 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 The effect of concentration on rate
25 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Effect of pressure on rate of reaction Why does increasing the pressure of gaseous reactants increase the rate of reaction? As the pressure increases, the space in which the gas particles are moving becomes smaller. The gas particles become closer together, increasing the frequency of collisions. This means that the particles are more likely to react. lower pressure
26 of 39 higher pressure Boardworks Ltd 2007 27 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Effect of surface area on rate of reaction Any reaction involving a solid can only take place at the surface of the solid. If the solid is split into several pieces, the surface area increases. What effect will this have on rate of reaction?
low surface area high surface area This means that there is an increased area for the reactant particles to collide with. The smaller the pieces, the larger the surface area. This means more collisions and a greater chance of reaction. 28 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Surface area and particle collisions 29 of 39
Boardworks Ltd 2007 Reaction between a carbonate and acid Marble chips are made of calcium carbonate. They react with hydrochloric acid to produce carbon dioxide. calcium carbonate CaCO3 (aq) + +
CO2 (g) The effect of increasing surface area on the rate of reaction can be measured by comparing how quickly the mass of the reactants decreases using marble chips of different sizes. 30 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 The effect of surface area on rate 31 of 39
Boardworks Ltd 2007 What are catalysts? Catalysts are substances that change the rate of a reaction without being used up in the reaction. energy (kJ) Catalysts never produce more product they just produce the same amount more quickly. Ea without catalyst Different catalysts work in
different ways, but most lower the reactions activation energy (Ea). Ea with catalyst reaction (time) 32 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Everyday catalysts Many catalysts are transition metals or their compounds. For example: Nickel is a catalyst in the production of margarine
(hydrogenation of vegetable oils). Iron is a catalyst in the production of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen (the Haber process). Platinum is a catalyst in the catalytic converters of car exhausts. It catalyzes the conversion of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide into the less polluting carbon dioxide and nitrogen. 33 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Catalysts in industry
Why are catalysts so important for industry? Products can be made more quickly, saving time and money. Catalysts reduce the need for high temperatures, saving fuel and reducing pollution. Catalysts are also essential for living cells. Biological catalysts are special types of protein called enzymes. 34 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007
35 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Glossary activation energy The amount of energy needed to start a reaction. catalyst A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up. concentration The number of molecules of a substance in a given volume. enzyme A biological catalyst.
rate of reaction The change in the concentration over a certain period of time. 36 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Anagrams 37 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Rates of reaction: summary
38 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007 Multiple-choice quiz 39 of 39 Boardworks Ltd 2007
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