GENES AND HEREDITY Students will recognize how biological traits are passed on to successive generations.
The Inheritance of Traits Most children are similar to their parents Children tend to be similar to siblings Each child is a combination of parental traits
The combination of paternal traits and maternal traits is unique for each individual child The Human Life Cycle gametes (a male sperm cell + a female
egg cell) fuse during fertilization to form a single celled zygote, or embryo the embryo grows by cell division in mitosis the embryo grows into a child the child matures into an adult
All living things contain: Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA - Control the structure and function of cells
- When organisms reproduce, they pass on copies of their DNA to their offspring. Because offspring have DNA from their parents, they will resemble their parents.
DNA is sort of like an instruction manual that shows how to build and maintain a living organism Genes segments of DNA that carry information
about how to make proteins Structural proteins for things like hair Functional proteins for things like breaking down lactose Genes Are on Chromosomes
located on the chromosomes number of chromosomes depends on the organism Bacteria one circular chromosome Humans 23 homologous pairs of linear chromosomes; one came from
mom and the other from dad Passing traits from parents to offspring is called heredity.
Mutation Errors in gene copies can cause somewhat different proteins to be produced Diversity in Offspring That means a unique egg will be fertilized
by a unique sperm to produce a unique child For each gene, there is a 50% chance of having the same as a sibling Diversity in Offspring
The combination from the parents creates the individual traits of each child Environment also plays a role, but differing alleles from parents are the primary reason that non-twin siblings are not identical
Twins Fraternal (non-identical) two separate fertilized eggs not genetically the same
Twins Identical monozygotic: one single fertilized egg that separates genetically the same
Gregor Mendel Determined how traits were inherited Used pea plants and analyzed traits
of parents and offspring Genotype Genotype homozygous: two of the same
heterozygous: two different Phenotype Phenotype the physical outcome of the genotype depends on nature of genes
Mendelian Genetics Dominant can mask a recessive Recessive can be masked by a dominant gene
Mendelian Genetics Dominant capital letter For example: T for tall Recessive lower case letter For example: t for short
Punnett Squares Punnett squares are used to predict offspring phenotypes Uses possible gametes from parents to predict possible offspring
Punnett Squares: Single Gene A parent who is heterozygous for a trait Aa can produce two possible gametes A or a A parent who is homozygous for a trait AA can only produce gametes with A
Punnett Squares The possible alleles are listed along the top and side of the square The predicted offspring genotypes are filled in the center boxes of the square
Punnett Squares The offspring can be homozygous or heterozygous It all depends on the parents and the possible gametes
Punnet squares can be used to predict possibilities of inheriting genetic diseases The environment plays a role traits such as height, weight, musical ability, susceptibility to cancer, and intelligence
Environment can affect phenotypes Identical twins with the same genotypes may not have exactly the same appearance
Why Traits Are Quantitative Correlation between Twins
Twin studies allow scientists to test the effects of environment The DNA is identical in identical twins but the environment may be different
Compare monozygotic (identical) twins to dizygotic (fraternal) twins Study twins raised together and study identical twins raised apart
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