17.2 Heating the Atmosphere Energy Transfer as Heat Heat is the energy transferred from one
object to another due to the difference in their temperatures 3 mechanisms of energy transfer as heat: Conduction Convection Radiation
Conduction Transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity Energy is transferred by the molecules
colliding into each other Ex) a hot metal spoon that was left in a hot pan Metals are good conductors of heat Air is a poor conductor of heat
Convection Much of the heat transfer in the atmosphere Transfer of heat by mass movement or circulation within a substance
Takes place in fluids (ocean and air) Takes place in solids (Earths mantle) Radiation Travels out in all directions from it source
Unlike conduction & convection, which need material to travel through, radiant energy can travel through the vacuum of space. Solar energy reaches Earth by radiation 4 Laws Governing Radiation
1. all objects, at any temperature, emit radiant energy 2. Hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than colder objects do 3. The hottest radiating bodies produce the
shortest wavelengths of maximum radiation 4. Objects that are good absorbers of radiation are good emitters as well. What happens to solar radiation?
Reflection and Scattering Reflection occurs when light bounces off an object. Reflection radiation has the same intensity as incident radiation. Scattering produces a larger number of weaker rays that travel in different directions.
What happens to solar radiation? Absorption About 50 percent of the solar energy that strikes the top of the atmosphere reaches Earths
surface and is absorbed. The greenhouse effect is the heating of Earths surface and atmosphere from solar radiation being absorbed and emitted by the atmosphere, mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide.
17.3 Temperature Controls 17.3 Temperature Controls Why Temperatures Vary Land and Water Land heats more rapidly and to higher temps
than water. Land cools more rapidly and to lower temps than water. Mean Monthly Temperatures for Vancouver and Winnipeg
17.3 Temperature Controls Geographic Position The geographic setting can greatly influence temperatures experienced at a specific location. Mean Monthly Temperatures for
Eureka and New York City Mean Monthly Temperatures for Seattle and Spokane 17.3 Temperature Controls
Altitude The altitude can greatly influence temperatures experienced at a specific location. Generally speaking the higher up you are, the colder you are!
Mean Monthly Temperatures for Guayaquil and Quito 17.3 Temperature Controls Cloud Cover and Albedo Albedo is the fraction of total radiation that is
reflected by any surface. Many clouds have a high Albedo and therefore reflect back to space a significant portion of the sunlight that
strikes them. Clouds Reflect and Absorb Radiation 17.3 Temperature Controls World Distribution of Temperature
Isotherms are lines on a weather map that connect points where the temperature is the same.
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