15 October 2018

15 October 2018

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION The French Revolution Begins Radical Revolution and Reaction The Rise of Napoleon and the Napoleonic Wars THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS Causes of the French Revolution Frances population was divided into three Estates: clergy, nobility, and a varied group. There was dissension among the estates based on wealth, property, and privileges. Social conditions and the appeal of the political ideas of the Enlightenment formed an underlying background to the French Revolution. Financial excess led to the near-collapse of the

government and became the immediate cause of the French Revolution. THE THREE ESTATES French Political Cartoon Robed figure: Represents the clergy, the First Estate. Roman Catholic Church great deal of social and political influence (10%) Circular object with the crown: Represents the monarchy; Pushing down on the middle figure, burdens of taxation. Armored Figure: Represents the nobility, the Second Estate.

Nobility had a great deal of political and military influence (>2%) Crouched Figure: Represents the commoners, the Third Estate. Vast majority of society, symbolizes them bearing nearly all the economic and labor burdens Peasants 75 to 80 % Urban craftspeople, shopkeepers, workers Bourgeoisie (middle class) 8% THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS Causes of the French Revolution Frances Tax System

Based on Tradition and Custom Unfairly applied Included: Taille Gabelle Vingtime THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS Causes of the French Revolution Frances Tax System Tax Type Why it was Unfair

Tallie Property Paid mostly by rural peasants Never paid by Nobility or Clergy Salt Paid only by some regions; tax rate varied by region Income

Intended to collect 1/20 of a persons income; paid mostly by poor and middle classes Gabelle vingtime VOLTAIRE Strong believer in natural law, a theory that nature determines rules by which human beings live. He was also a deist, holding a belief in reason that was influenced by Sir

Isaac Newtons scientific discoveries. Deists argued that the universe was created by a God who set it in motion to operate under definable natural laws. Deism: The universe operates like a mechanical clock set to motion; religious toleration: All men are brothers under God. Voltaire was an outspoken critic of the French clergy MONTESQUIEU

French noble and could claim many of the rights and privileges that Enlightenment thinkers criticized. His The Spirit of Laws (1748) used principles of the scientific method to define the natural laws that govern social and political relationships. He reviewed Great Britains monarchial system and pointed out: That a separation of powers among the executive (monarch), the judicial structure (the court of laws), and the legislature (Parliament) kept each part of the government in balance with the others

Thus: The principle of separation of powers helps a government operate properly without oppressive power ROUSSEAU Influential writer in the later years of the Enlightenment period. He described the relationship among people, laws, and government as one that protected private property. He felt the people had become enslaved by the government. In The Social Contract, Rousseau

theorized that an Enlightened society is shaped by the general will of all citizens. (Society should be governed by the general will of all citizens) Rousseaus theory unnerved some people who thought it might be taken to a dangerous extremeas was the case in later phases of the French Revolution. LOUIS XVI (1754 1793) Louis XVI ascended to the throne at age

20 after the death of his grandfather, Louis XV. Although he greatly supported and funded the American Revolution, his ineffectual leadershipespecially in dealing with political and economic problems at homelaid the groundwork for the French Revolution. The support to the American Revolution put the budget into a total crisis. Dissent grew, he and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were perceived as being extravagant (court luxuries). France on the verge of financial collapse, Louis XVI was forced to call a

meeting of the Estates-General Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were arrested, tried, and executed in 1793. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS Causes of the French Revolution How did economic conditions increase opposition to government? Food shortages, rising prices, and unemployment angered many of the people in France. Citizens were unhappy with the monarchys heavy spending on wars and on personal luxuries.

Economic traditionssuch as the tax systemfavored the upper class, and the middle class wanted change and social justice. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS Causes of the French Revolution Meeting of the Estates-General In 1789, King Louis XVI convened a meeting of the French parliament, which was called the Estates-General. The Estates-General, which had not met since 1614, consisted of representatives of Frances three estates. The king had called the meeting because the government had run out of money and the king wanted to change the

tax system to raise money. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS Causes of the French Revolution Meeting of the Estates-General A radical minority called the Patriots wanted - a written constitution - to limit the kings power - elimination of legal privilege - a representative assembly Members of the Third Estate demanded that the voting system be changed so that they had as many votes as the other two estates combined. The king disagreed.

The members of the Third Estate took an oath, declaring that they would continue to meet until there was a new constitution. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS The National Assembly Voting: Arguments from the start, why? Each group received one vote (2 to 1) Third Estate wanted each deputy receive one vote After disputes over the voting system at the meeting of the Estates-General, the Third Estate declared that it was the National Assembly and would draft a constitution. What happens?

Door locked, thus: THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS The National Assembly Cahiers de Dolance When members of the three estates met to choose their representatives in the Estates-General in 1789, they drew up lists of grievances called cahiers de dolance. All three estates agreed that there needed to be major constitutional reform. All three estates wanted a representative government that would change the absolute powers of the monarch but not eliminate social distinctions.

The First and Second Estatesthe clergy and the nobilityseemed ready for equality of taxation and the abolition of censorship THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS The National Assembly Cahiers de Dolance The First and Second Estates wanted to keep religion prominent in society. The peasants mainly had problems with the privileges of the nobility. Urban inhabitants took issue with specific people evading taxes, wanted the abolition of certain tolls, and pushed for bridge repair.

THE TENNIS COURT OATH On June 17, 1789, members of the Third Estate attending the Estates-General assembly realized that the traditional form of votingin which the privileged classs (nobles and clergy) vote had more weight than the commoners vote would leave them virtually powerless. To protect their interests, they declared themselves the National Assembly and threatened to

act as Frances governing body on their own. On June 20, the members of the National Assembly found they were locked out of their meeting room, presumably by Louis XVI, so they occupied one of the kings indoor tennis courts. The assembly vowed to stay in the tennis court until a new constitution was established in France. THE TENNIS COURT OATH

One week later, in light of the National Assemblys solidarity and the support they were garnering from commoners, King Louis XVI ordered the nobles and the clergy to join with the Third Estate in constituting the new National Constituent Assembly. At the same time, Louis XVI began to organize troops to break up the assembly. The French artist JacquesLouis David painted this

scene, titled "Le Serment de Jeu de Paume," or "The Tennis Court Oath," in 1791. THE SIEGE OF THE BASTILLE On July 14, 1789, protestors demanded that the ammunition and weaponry from the Bastille be given to them. Although there were only seven prisoners in the Bastille at the time, the guards refused to turn over the artillery to the mob.. The Bastille, built originally as a medieval fort, was used for many years as a prison where kings would house political prisoners. For the French, it became a symbol of the vicious rule of Bourbon monarchs. The protestors attacked and captured the prison, releasing the prisoners and taking up the arms stored within. The attack on the Bastille is considered by many to be the start of the French Revolution

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS The National Assembly Parisians stormed and demolished the Bastille, and Paris was abandoned to the rebels. Revolts broke out all over France. In response to rumors that foreign troops would put down the revolution, peasants worked to destroy records of financial obligation. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS Causes of the French Revolution What is a Revolution?

Revolution: Fundamental change that has occurred rapidly Political Revolution: Fundamental and rapid change in government Economic Revolution: Fundamental change in how an economy is structured Social Revolution: Fundamental change in society and culture THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS End of the Old Regime (overview) The National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the

Rights of Man and of the Citizen, a charter of basic liberties. The Church was brought under control of the state. The Constitution of 1791 set up a limited monarchy. In response to food shortages and defeats in war with Austria, the Paris Commune established itself as a city council and attacked the palace and the Legislative Assembly. DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND OF THE CITIZEN Written and adopted by the National Assembly in August 1789. Proclaimed an end to aristocratic

privileges Inspired by French Enlightenment thinkers Charles-Louis de Secondat, the baron de La Brde et de Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, as well as by the English Bill of Rights and the United States Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The National Assembly set out 17 articles that asserted the freedom and rights of all men, established a separation of powers, and limited the powers of the monarch. Article I: Men are born and remain

free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be based only on considerations of the common good. DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND OF THE CITIZEN Article VII: No man may be accused, arrested, or detained except in the cases determined by the Law, and following the procedure that it has prescribed. Article XI: The free communication of ideas and of opinions is one of the most

precious rights of man. Any citizen may therefore speak, write, and publish freely, except what is tantamount to the abuse of this liberty in the cases determined by Law. This French painting, titled Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, was completed in 1789. The Gallery Collection/Corbis; Documents on Major European Governments, by Randolph L. Braham. Copyright 1966 by Alfred A. Knopf. PARISIAN WOMEN MARCH TO VERSAILLES (THE KING CONCEDES)

On October 5, 1789, a group of women (and some men) marched 15 miles from Paris to Versailles, where King Louis XVI and the royal family were staying, to protest the monarchys inaction regarding bread and grain shortages. Many of the women carried weapons abandoned by the French Guard after the soldiers decided to side with the rebels against the monarchy. This line engraving depicts Parisian women marching to Versailles on October 5, 1789 Bread Riots: 1788, bad weather reduced the amount of grain produced by nearly 25 percent. The following year, bread prices nearly doubled, a situation that was made worse as some began to hoard grain in fear of shortages. Bread was a staple of the French diet, so

the spike in price angered people, and they took to the streets to criticize the government for not doing anything to help. In the spring of 1789, increasingly desperate and hungry Parisians began rioting at bakeries and markets, attacking bakers and millers and simply taking the bread they wanted. This drawing represents the riot that occurred when Parisians discovered that Francois the Baker had been saving bread for members of the National Assembly. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND

NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS Church Reforms How was the Catholic Church changed during the French Revolution? The National Assembly seized and sold off the Catholic Churchs lands. The Catholic Church was brought under control of the state. The hierarchical structure of the Catholic Church was abolished. - Bishops and priests were to be elected by the people rather than appointed by the Church hierarchy. - Bishops and priests salaries were to be paid by the state rather than the Church.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS New Constitution and New Fears What were the major changes brought about by the Constitution of 1791? Set up a limited monarchy: a Legislative Assembly as well as the king Made a distinction between active citizens, who could vote, and passive citizens, who could not - Active citizens were men over 25 who owned property - Passive citizens had equal rights except for the ability to vote

Provided for election, rather than appointment, of clergy, government officials, and judges THE ARREST OF LOUIS XVI AT VARENNES June 21, 1791, he and his family attempted to flee Paris for the German border. The king and his family fled in disguise, but were recognized before they escaped the country. Louis XVI was arrested in Varennes, a town in northeast France, and brought back to Paris. The king had lost credibility, pushing France further toward abolishing the monarchy. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS New Constitution and New Fears

What were the major changes brought about by the Constitution of 1791? Set up a limited monarchy: a Legislative Assembly as well as the king Made a distinction between active citizens, who could vote, and passive citizens, who could not - Active citizens were men over 25 who owned property - Passive citizens had equal rights except for the ability to vote Provided for election, rather than appointment, of clergy, government officials, and judges THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND

NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS Lesson 1 Guided Reading I.A. The First Estate was clergy, the Second was nobles, and the Third was peasants, townspeople, and the bourgeoisie. I.B. The French Revolutions immediate cause was the near collapse of the French budget (inflation) and the resulting food shortages and unemployment. II.A. The Third Estate declared itself the National Assembly when Louis XVI refused to change the voting structure in the Estates-General. II.B. Parisian rebels attacked the Bastille, a prison and an armory. After intense fighting, the warden surrendered. II.C. The Great Fear was a time of vast panic. Peasants rebelled against the monarchy and feared an invasion of foreign troops.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS Lesson 1 Guided Reading III.A. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen guaranteed basic liberties. III.B. They wanted to change the old order, bring the Church under control of the state, and get money by selling off Church lands. III.C. Members organized protests, captured the king, made the Legislative Assembly suspend the monarchy, and called for a National Convention. III.D. They were Paris Commune members who wore long pants to identify themselves as ordinary people, not nobles.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS What do you Recall? What proclaimed an end to aristocratic privileges? The Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen Why did the storm the Bastille and what was the outcome? Louis XVI planned to use force against the Third Estate Royal Authority was destroyed. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS

What do you Recall? What triggered the economic crisis that triggered the French Revolution? Inflation, food shortage, unemployment. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION The Move to Radicalism The National Convention abolished the monarchy and established a republic as the government of France. Louis XVI was guillotined in 1793. In response to the execution of the French king, a coalition of European powers made war on France, and the French

army began to retreat. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION The Move to Radicalism Why was there a move to radicalism after 1791? There were price increases and economic shortages. Radicals, such as the sans-culottes, wanted all men to be able to vote. There were rumors of royalist conspiracies. Louis XVI was opposed to the Constitution of 1791. Parisians were afraid and panicky because of the political turmoil.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION The Move to Radicalism Why did the French Revolution radicalize? Radicals gained power after Louis XIV was executed. - Jacobins club grew in numbers. - Execution of Louis XIV outraged Europe. France was faced with domestic uprisings and external threats. - Committee of Public Safety was created to defend France.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION The Move to Radicalism What did the Committee of Public Safety do? Adopted policies that became known as Reign of Terror Set up revolutionary courts Prosecuted counterrevolutionaries Called on all citizens to defend France Tried to control and improve society through price controls, primary education for all, and abolition of slavery. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND

NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION The Reign of Terror The National Convention turned control of France to a group of twelve men known as the Committee of Public Safety. The Committees reaction to domestic threats became known as the Reign of Terror. Many French citizens were tried and executed for treason, and rebellions were brutally ended. In its efforts to shape French society, the Committee called for laws intended to provide primary education for all, abolish slavery in French colonies, control prices, and remove the influence of Christianity (de-Christianization). MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE (1758 1794)

Robespierre was nicknamed The Incorruptible. Often identified as the architect of the Reign of Terror. During this phase of Frances revolution, the National Convention gave broad powers to the Committee of Public Safety, which ran the government. control the prices of essential goods such as food, fuel, and clothing pursued a policy of de-Christianization. Its members believed that the religion encouraged superstition, rather than the use of reason He sent so many to the guillotine that fellow

politicians, fearing they might be accused of treason, turned against him: in July 1794. Roughly a year after it began, the Reign of Terror ended when Robespierre himself went to the guillotine. He had been among the first to argue for key republican policiesuniversal male suffrage, free education for all, and religious tolerance. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION A Nation at Arms Foreign troops angered by the execution of Louis XVI

gathered on Frances borders. The Committee of Public Safety issued a decree to raise an army made up of citizens. More than a million men joined together to create the army, and France defeated the enemy forces. After the members of the National Convention had gathered enough votes to condemn Robespierre, he was executed in July 1794, ending the Reign of Terror. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION The Directory The National Convention reduced the power of the Committee of

Public Safety and created a new constitution. Under the new constitution, the government was separated into two legislative houses, and five men the Directoryheld executive power. The Directorys reign was ineffective and characterized by corruption in government, thus it had to rely on military to enforce its authority. Economic problems persisted, and the wars that started under the Committee of Public Safety dragged on. France was ripe for change. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION Lesson 2 Guided Reading

I.A. monarchy republic I.B. Jacobin executed. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION Lesson 2 Guided Reading II.A. Safety II.B. Robespierre II.C. 40,000 II.D. Virtue II.E. de-Christianization calendar.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION Lesson 2 Guided Reading III.A. army III.B. Rhine Austrian III.C. Robespierre. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION Lesson 2 Guided Reading IV.A. Constitution

Electors IV.B. corruption Military IV.C. coup dtat Napolon. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION What do you Recall? Under Robespierre pursued a policy of? De-Christianization Why was this policy instituted? Members believed that religion encouraged superstition

rather than reason. Since the Directory could not govern effectively after the Reign of Terror, what happened? They began to rely on military force THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS What do you Recall? What proclaimed an end to aristocratic privileges? The Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen Why did the storm the Bastille and what was the outcome? Louis XVI planned to use force against the Third Estate Royal Authority was destroyed.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS What do you Recall? What triggered the economic crisis that triggered the French Revolution? Inflation, food shortage, unemployment. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON The Rise of Napoleon and the Napoleonic Wars The Fall of Napoleon and the European Reaction

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION The Rise of Napoleon Background What personality traits enabled Napoleon to be successful? From Corsica and of Italian descent Family was minor nobility but not wealthy Won a scholarship to a famous military school Served in the French Army during most of the French Revolution Was unpopular with his fellow officers early in his military career. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND

NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION The Rise of Napoleon What personality traits enabled Napoleon to be successful? Dedicated and acted decisively Intelligent: studied famous military campaigns to learn from others Ambitious and worked hard Inspired loyalty amongst his troops Spoke well and with confidence. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION The Rise of Napoleon Milestones Rose quickly through the ranksfrom captain in 1792 to

commander in 1796 Won battles early on in southern France, defeating royalist forces supported by the British Took control of Frances army in Italy and defeated Austrian troops repeatedly Abandoned his army in Egypt and returned to Paris THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Consul and Emperor Napoleon participated in a coup that overthrew the Directory and established a consulate in which he wielded absolute power as first consul. In 1804, Napoleon became a monarch outright.

Overthrew the French government in a coup dtat in 1799 Set up the consulate Gained absolute power; made himself emperor in 1804. THE CORONATION OF NAPOLEON Napoleon wanted to be consecrated as emperor by Pope Pius VII. It would be the first time since the reign of King Charlemagne (768814) that a pope had crowned a French emperor. Pius VII agreed to attend, and during the coronation ceremony, Napoleon took the crown from the pope and set it on his own head. Napoleon crowned himself emperor of the French Empire and his wife Josephine empress on December 2, 1804. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND

NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Peace with the Church Napoleon recognized Catholicism as the religion of the majority of French people. Codification of Laws He reduced the complicated French legal system to seven law codes. A New Bureaucracy Capable He created a centralized bureaucracy, based on ability rather than nobility (rank or birth). Did not care about rank or birth. Public officials and military officers alike were promoted based on their ability

MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE (1758 1794) Napoleon began what was to be a code of law based purely on reason, not on common sense, past customs, or the sometimes-arbitrary laws of a monarch. The French Civil Code, or Napoleonic code, was introduced in 1804 and influenced other nations until the early 1900s. Divided into three books dealing with laws of the person and civil rights, laws of objects and property, and laws of acquiring rights and legal contracts.

While the Code established the freedom and unalienable rights of the individual person: men were afforded greater rights than women Women were made subordinate to their husbands The Art Gallery Collection/Alamy THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Preserver of the Revolution? Reforms from the French Revolution:

Civil Code, all citizens were equal before the law. Concept of opening government careers to more people was another gain of the revolution that he retained Abolishment of Revolutionary Ideals: Liberty was replaced by a despotism He betrayed the revolutionary ideal of freedom of expression through government censorship. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Napoleons Empire Continental Europe, with the exception of Britain, became the Grand Empire, a three-part empire under Napoleons control:

the French Empire; dependent states; and allied states. One effect of Napoleons conquests was the spread of French revolutionary ideas. Intent on defeating Great Britain, Napoleon tried to weaken Britain by blocking trade. Napoleon aroused the spirit of nationalism throughout Europe, as the peoples he had conquered united in hatred of the French occupiers. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Napoleons Empire What were highlights of the Napoleonic Wars?

During the first phase, France defeated Austria several times and made peace with Britain in 1802. France and Britain began fighting again in 1803, with victories by the British navy making a French invasion of Britain impossible. Napoleon then fought a coalition of countries on the European continent and won brilliant victories at Ulm, Austerlitz, Jena, and Friedland from 1805 to 1807. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Napoleons Empire What were highlights of the Napoleonic Wars? From 1808 to 1812, Napoleon was less successful. His

efforts to defeat Portugal and Spain were thwarted by British support for his opponents. After invading Russia in 1812, Napoleon and his troops were forced to retreat in brutally cold conditions. Napoleon lost 500,000 soldiers in Russia. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Napoleons Empire What did Napoleon try to do with his Continental System? Prevent the British from trading with other European countries - To weaken the British economy - To hinder Britains ability to wage war.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Napoleons Empire Why did the Continental System fail? Britain dominated the seas. Some of Napoleons allies traded clandestinely in British goods. - Smuggled goods entered many North sea ports. Other countries resisted participating in Napoleons plan. - Portugal and Sweden refused to join. Britain found trade markets outside Europe. - The Middle East and Latin America were new outlets for British goods.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Napoleons Empire Why did the Continental System fail? Britain dominated the seas. Some of Napoleons allies traded clandestinely in British goods. - Smuggled goods entered many North sea ports. Other countries resisted participating in Napoleons plan. - Portugal and Sweden refused to join. Britain found trade markets outside Europe. - The Middle East and Latin America were new outlets for British goods.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Lesson 3 Guided Reading A.1. His victories gave France control of northern Italy. As a result, he returned to France as a hero. A.2. Napoleon appointed himself Emperor Napoleon I. A.3. He felt it was smart to make peace with the Church since most French people were Catholic. Also, by doing so, he gained supporters. A.4. He did away with the 300 different systems and created a set of seven law codes, including the Civil Code, which preserved some of the key revolutionary principles.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Lesson 3 Guided Reading A.5. He developed a powerful bureaucracy in which officials were chosen and promoted based on ability instead of rank or birth. B.1. The three parts of his Grand Empire were the French Empire, dependent states, and allied states. B.2. Dependent states like Spain were ruled by Napoleons relatives. Allied states like Prussia were defeated by Napoleon. B.3. Britains ability to resist Napoleon and the rise of nationalism in the peoples he conquered were two important

causes of the empires collapse. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RISE OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION What do you Recall? What does Napoleon do during the majority of the French Revolution? Served in the French Army How were promotions given under Napoleons new bureaucracy? By ability, not by rank or birth. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON FALL OF NAPOLEON AND

THE EUROPEAN REACTION The Fall of Napoleon Russias refusal to adhere to the Continental System led Napoleon to invade them in 1812, but he was eventually forced to withdraw. Napoleons defeat in Russia emboldened other European powers to make war on the French. Their forces captured Paris in 1814. Napoleon was sent into exile, and the monarchy was restored in France. Napoleon returned to France and raised an army, but in 1815 he was decisively defeated at Waterloo by British and Prussian forces. He was exiled again. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND

NAPOLEON FALL OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION The Fall of Napoleon What were the main reasons Napoleon fell from power? Inability to defeat Britain because of its superior sea power Failure of the Continental System Force of Nationalism in Europe Coalition of other European states Military defeats in Russia and elsewhere. THE RETREAT FROM RUSSIA In June 1812, Napoleon invaded Russia from the west with an army of some 600,000 men. He planned to surround and annihilate the Russian army in less than a month.

When Napoleon finally reached Moscow in mid-September 1812, he found it abandoned. A huge fire broke out, burning much of the city and leaving it in ruins. Napoleon was forced to withdraw. The Russians retreated steadily eastward from Napoleons advance, burning everything as they went and leaving no food or resources for the French. Cold and snow became a deadly enemy early in 1812. Napoleons army struggled home, >10,000 men remained. This disaster in Russia would be a factor in Napoleons eventual downfall. NAPOLEONS FINAL DAYS After the defeat in Russia, things went downhill quickly. When the allies entered Paris on March 31, 1814, it was clear that Napoleons rule had come to an end. Napoleon didnt give up easily - In just 20 months (from March 1814 to October 1815) lost control of his empire exiled to the island of Elba escaped returned to Paris regained control of France led several battles was defeated at Waterloo exiled agian

NAPOLEONS FINAL DAYS The allied forces of Austria, Prussia, and Russia rally immense armies. On March 30, they march into Paris. Napoleon is not in Paris when the allies arrive, and by the time he hears that the city has been occupied, it is too

late. James Jenkins painted "Entrance of the Allies into Paris, March 31st 1814" in 1815. Stapleton Historical/Age Fotostock America NAPOLEONS FINAL DAYS April 12, 1814. Napoleon abdicates. He is exiled to Elba. Napoleon renounces his throne with the Treaty of Fontainebleau. He is sent to exile on the

island of Elba, off the coast of Tuscany. Gaetano Ferri painted "Napoleon 1st signing his abdication at Fontainebleau Catstle on April 4, 1814" using oil on canvas in 1843. Runion des Muses Nationaux / Art Resource, NY NAPOLEONS FINAL DAYS February 26, 1815. Napoleon escapes from Elba. Napoleon does not intend to remain on Elba. Less than a year after he is

exiled, Napoleon sails from the island with a small fleet of ships. Three days later he lands in France. This nineteenth-century painting is titled "Napoleon Escaping from Elba.". Bettmann/CORBIS NAPOLEONS FINAL DAYS March 20, 1815. Napoleon arrives in Paris. Napoleon enters Paris in triumph after the French

troops sent to recapture him choose to support him instead. Napoleon resumes his role as emperor of France.. This French painting from 1815 shows Napoleons return from Elba in March, 1815.". BeBa/Iberfoto / The Image Works NAPOLEONS FINAL DAYS June 18, 1815. French

are defeated at Waterloo. After defeating the Prussian army in Belgium, Napoleon experiences a crushing defeat at Waterloo. Arthur Wellesley Iron Duke became a hero to the British when he led the allied forces that defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo Outnumbered and

outmaneuvered, Napoleons hopes of restoring his former empire are dashed. Felix Philippoteaux created this oil painting of the French armys defeat at Waterloo in 1815. The Granger Collection. NYC All rights reserved. NAPOLEONS FINAL DAYS June 22, 1815. Napoleon abdicates again. It has been approximately 100

days since Napoleon was restored to power in March. Now, for a second time, Napoleon is forced to renounce his throne. This painting depicts Napoleon standing on the deck of the Bellerephon after his second abdication. Mary Evans Picture Library/Alamy NAPOLEONS FINAL DAYS October 16, 1815.

Napoleon arrives at St. Helena. Napoleon arrives on the remote island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean. During his time there, he writes his memoirs and learns English. In this painting, Napoleon dictates his memoirs while living his final years on the island of St. Helena. Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Alamy NAPOLEONS FINAL DAYS

May 5, 1821. Napoleon dies. Napoleon dies at St. Helena at the age of 51. The official cause of death is "stomach cancer. Carl von Steuben created this oil painting titled "The Death of Napoleon I on Sain Helen, May 5, 1821.". Reunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource, NY THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON FALL OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION European Reaction

After the fall of Napoleon, representatives of the victorious powers met at the Congress of Vienna, intent on restoring the old European order. The representatives redrew territorial boundaries to create a balance of power in Europe. The leaders believed in the philosophy of conservatism, based on a respect for tradition, social stability, obedience to authority, and organized religion. The great powers, except for Britain, adopted a principle of intervention, asserting their right to use military force to oppose revolutions in any country. THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA

From September 1814 to June 1815, the Congress of Vienna met to reorganize Europe following the Napoleonic Wars. The congress resulted in a comprehensive treaty. Many rulers of the minor European states put in an appearance. Courtiers, secretaries, and ladies came to Vienna as well to enjoy the social life of the Austrian court. the biggest political meeting Europe had ever seen. The five principle nations at the table were

Austria, Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, and France. Their chief representatives were: Prince von Metternich (Austria) Czar Alexander I (Russia) King Frederick William III (Prussia) -Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, Prince de Bnvent, (France)Robert Stewart, ViscountCastlereagh (Great Britain) Austrian Archives/CORBIS THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON FALL OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION European Reaction What Is Conservatism? a political philosophy based on tradition and social

stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion Give an Example: The powers assembled at the Congress of Vienna advocated restoring the rule of the royal families that Napoleon had removed from power. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON FALL OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Forces of Change What Is Liberalism? a political philosophy based on the ideas that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liberties the basic rights of all people

should be protected Give an Example: In the United States, a written documentthe Bill of Rightswas created to ensure people's freedoms. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON FALL OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Forces of Change What Is Nationalism? the unique cultural identity of a people, based on a common language, religion, and culture; a belief that each nationality should have its own government Give an Example: The Hungarians wanted the right to establish their own

government rather than be ruled by the Austrian emperor. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON FALL OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION European Reaction Europe After Napoleon What were the conditions in Europe after the fall of Napoleon? The Napoleonic Wars had ended. European countries had developed strong spirits of nationalism. Monarchies were restored in accordance with the principle of legitimacy. There was relative peace and stability although political freedoms were reduced. The great powers rearranged territories to create a balance of power. The philosophy of conservatism prevailed.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON FALL OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Forces Change Forces for changeknown as liberalism and nationalism were at work between 1815 and 1830. Liberalism, a political philosophy that grew out of the Enlightenment, held that people should be free as possible from government restraint. Liberal beliefs included the protection of civil liberties, the basic rights of people. Nationalism arose when people began to identify themselves as part of a community, a nation, defined by a distinctive language, common institutions, and customs. From the time of the French Revolution on, nationalists came to

believe that each nationality should have its own government. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON FALL OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Lesson 4 Guided Reading A.1. Russia European A.2. Elba Louis XVIII A.3. Austria Prussia A.4. Waterloo Prussian.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON FALL OF NAPOLEON AND THE EUROPEAN REACTION Lesson 4 Guided Reading B.1. Vienna power B.2. Metternich B.3. Conservatism authority B.4. intervention C.1. Enlightenment liberalism. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON FALL OF NAPOLEON AND

THE EUROPEAN REACTION What do you Recall? What was Russias tactics to defeat Napoleon? Retreating and burning their own villages. Why did Napoleons Empire collapse? Coalition of other European states and the force of nationalism What marked the end for Napoleon in 1812? Invading Russia THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION What do you Recall?

Under Robespierre pursued a policy of? De-Christianization Why was this policy instituted? Members believed that religion encouraged superstition rather than reason. Since the Directory could not govern effectively after the Reign of Terror, what happened? They began to rely on military force THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS What do you Recall? What proclaimed an end to aristocratic privileges? The Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen

Why did the storm the Bastille and what was the outcome? Louis XVI planned to use force against the Third Estate Royal Authority was destroyed. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS What do you Recall? What triggered the economic crisis that triggered the French Revolution? Inflation, food shortage, unemployment.

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