14.6 Special Field Order NO.15 William T. Sherman REDISTRIBUTING THE LAND TO BLACK REFUGEES T I F FA N Y LU DAPHINIE RIVERA A N UL IKA UG WUEZE PERIOD 1 Whos William T. Sherman?
Union Major General Known for his outstanding command of military strategy Lead the March to the Sea Sympathized with the planter class (P.O.V) Felt that slavery upheld social stability Treated as a savior
March to the Sea 300 mile march from Atlanta to Savanna captured Savannah on December 21, 186 Army demolished everything in its path Scorched Earth Policy Developed the philosophy and tactics of hard war Did not harm civilians Demoralized Confederate soldiers We are not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people, and must make old and
young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war. William T. Sherman WHAT DO YOU SEE? Shermans Order Also known as the 40 acres and a mule Addressed the immediate problem of dealing with the tens of thousands of black refugees who had joined Shermans March in search of protection and sustenance Set aside 400,000 acres of prime rice growing land exclusively for freedmen About 40,000 blacks were cultivating Sherman Lands by
June 1865 Refugees believed that the land was going to be theirs forever as a belated payment for generations of unpaid labor President Andrew Johnson reversed Shermans Policy in the fall of 1865 after the war ended HIPPOS H - Wrote his special field order No. 15 in January 1865, dealt with the challenges of displaced former slaves, wrote after the fall of Atlanta and March to the Sea. I - President Andrew Johnson and former slaves
P- Former slaves who followed his army were provided with the land they were promised and to assure the harmony of action in the area of operation P-Felt that slavery upheld social stability and was against slavery O- Grants war of attrition S- Key Period 1: Indentured Servitude Key Period 7: WWI Reading and Discussion Questions
Summarize the policy regarding freed slaves that Sherman announced in January 1865. What need did he identify as pressing for those newly liberated former slaves? Union Major General William T. Shermans policy regarding freed slaves enabled former slaves to obtain small sections of land on the Sea Islands in Georgia in his Special Field Order No. 15. It granted freed families a plot [no] more than forty acres of tillable ground and unneeded mules from the army. He identified the former slaves need
for promise land, which was the acres of prime rice-growing land, since thousands of black refugees joined Shermans March to the Sea. To what extent do you see Shermans order as part of the civil rights history of the United States? Explain. President Andrew Johnson reversed Shermans order so his policy isnt seen as part of the civil rights history of the US today. Johnson returned the land along the South coast to white planters who originally owned the land. Comparative Questions 1. Analyze and evaluate Shermans policy regarding land redistribution. How does it compare to other
resources related to the land as a meaningful part of citizenship? Shermans policy required land redistribution to be under military jurisdiction during the war and a brief period after. However, during the Reconstruction era, federal and state policy emphasized wage labor, no land ownership for African-Americans. Several AfricanAmerican communities lost their land because almost all land allocated during the war was restored to their pre-war owners, while some families obtained new land by homesteading.
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