投影片 1 - 國立臺灣大學

投影片 1 - 國立臺灣大學

Chapter 1 Basic Introduction to Computers Discovering Computers 2012 Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World Objectives Overview Explain why computer literacy is vital to success in todays world Define the term, computer, and describe the relationship between data and information

Describe the five components of a computer Discuss the advantages and disadvantages that users experience when working with computers Define the term, network, and identify benefits of sharing resources on a network Discuss the uses of the Internet and World

Wide Web See Page 3 for Detailed Objectives Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 2 Objectives Overview Distinguish between system software and application software Differentiate among types, sizes, and functions of computers in each category

Explain how home users, small office/home office users, mobile users, power users, and enterprise users each interact with computers See Page 3 for Detailed Objectives Describe the role of each element in an information system Discuss how society uses computers in education, finance, government, health

care, science, publishing, travel, and manufacturing Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 3 A World of Computers Computers are everywhere Pages 4 - 5 Figure 1-1 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 4 What Is a Computer?

A computer is an electronic device, operating und er the control of instructions stored in its own me mory Collects data (input) Processing Produces information (output) Information Processing Cycle Page 6 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1

5 What Is a Computer? Page 6 Figure 1-2 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 6 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 7 Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices Records (writes) and/or retrieves (reads) items to and from storage media

Pages 6 - 8 Communications Device Storage Device Output Device Hardware component that conveys information to one or more people System Unit Case that contains the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data Allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer Input Device

A computer contains many electric, electronic, and mech anical components known as hardware The Components of a Computer The Components of a Computer Page 7 Figure 1-3 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers

Pages 9 - 10 Advantages of Using Computers Disadvantages of Using Computers Speed Health Risks Reliability Violation of Privacy Consistency

Public Safety Storage Impact on Labor Force Communications Impact on Environment Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers Green computing involves reducing the electricity consu med and environmental waste generated when using a c

omputer Strategies include: Page 10 Recycling Regulating manufacturing processes Extending the life of computers Immediately donating or properly disposing of replaced computers Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 10

Networks and the Internet A network is a collectio n of computers and devi ces connected together, often wirelessly, via com munications devices an d transmission media Pages 10 - 11 Figure 1-6 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 11 Networks and the Internet The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that c onnects millions of businesses, government agencies, ed

ucational institutions, and individuals Page 11 Figure 1-7 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 12 Networks and the Internet People use the Internet for a variety of reasons: Pages 12 - 13 Figure 1-8 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 13

Networks and the Internet A social networking Web site encourages membe rs to share their interests, ideas, stories, photos, music, and videos with other registered users Page 14 Figure 1-9 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 14 Computer Software Software, also called a program, tells the comput er what tasks to perform and how to perform the m

Pages 15 - 16 Figures 1-10 - 1-11 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 15 Computer Software Installing is the process of setting up software to work with the computer, printer, and other hardw are Pages 16 - 17 Figure 1-12 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 16

Computer Software A programmer develops software or writes the i nstructions that direct t he computer to process data into information Page 18 Figure 1-13 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 17 Categories of Computers Personal computers Mobile computers and mobile devices

Game consoles Servers Mainframes Supercomputers Embedded computers Page 19 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 18 Personal Computers A personal computer can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself Two popular architectures are the PC and the Appl e Desktop computer

Pages 19 - 20 Figures 1-15 - 1-16 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 19 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Mobile Computer Pages 20 - 23 Mobile Device Personal computer you can carry from place to place

Computing device small enough to hold in your hand Examples include notebook computers, laptop computers, netbooks, ultra-thins, and Tablet PCs Examples include smart phones and PDAs, ebook readers, handheld computers, portable media players, and digital cameras Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1

20 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Notebook computer Tablet PC Smart phones and PDAs E-book reader Pages 20 - 22 Figures 1-17 1-20 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 21 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Handheld computer

Portable media player Digital camera Pages 22 - 23 Figures 1-21 1-23 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 22 Game Consoles A game console is a mo bile computing device d esigned for single-player or multiplayer video ga mes Page 24 Figure 1-24

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 23 Servers A server controls access to the hardware, softwa re, and other resources on a network Provides a centralized st orage area for programs, data, and information Page 25 Figure 1-25 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1

24 Mainframes A mainframe is a large, expensive, powerful co mputer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simu ltaneously Page 25 Figure 1-26 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 25

Supercomputers A supercomputer is the fastest, most powerful co mputer Fastest supercomputers are capable of processing mor e than one quadrillion instructions in a single second Page 25 Figure 1-27 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 26 Embedded Computers An embedded computer is a special-purpose com puter that functions as a component in a larger pr oduct Consumer

Electronics Mobile and digital telephones Digital televisions Cameras Video recorders DVD players and recorders Answering machines Page 26 Home Automation Devices Automobiles

Thermostats Sprinkling systems Security monitoring systems Appliances Lights Antilock brakes Engine control modules Airbag controller Cruise control Process Controllers and Robotics Remote monitoring systems Power monitors

Machine controllers Medical devices Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 Computer Devices and Office Machines Keyboards Printers Faxes Copiers

27 Embedded Computers Page 26 Figure 1-28 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 28 Elements of an Information System Hardware Software People

Page 27 Data Procedures Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 29 Elements of an Information System Page 27 Figure 1-29 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 30

Examples of Computer Usage Home User Personal financial management Web access Communications Entertainment Pages 28 31 Figures 1-30 1-32 Small Office/Home Office User Look up information Send and receive e-mail messages

Make telephone calls Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 Mobile User Connect to other computers on a network or the Internet Transfer information Play video games Listen to music Watch movies 31 Examples of Computer Usage Pages 31 32 Figures 1-33 1-34

Power User Enterprise User Work with multimedia Use industry-specific software Communicate among employees Process high volumes of transactions Blog Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 32

Computer Applications in Society Education Finance Government Health Care Pages 34 - 36 Figures 1-36 1-39 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 33 Computer Applications in Society Science Publishing

Travel Manufacturing Pages 36 - 38 Figures 1-40 1-43 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 34 Video: Computer History in a Barn CLICK TO START Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 35 Summary

Page 39 Basic computer concepts Components of a computer Networks, the Internet, and computer software Many different categories of computers, computer users, and computer applications in society Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1

36 Chapter 1 Basic Introduction to Computers Discovering Computers 2012 Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World Chapter 1 Complete

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