1 - Pc\|Mac

1 - Pc\|Mac

Chapter 1 Part B The Human Body: An Orientation Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Karen Dunbar Kareiva Ivy Tech Community College 1.5 Anatomical Terms Anatomical Position and Directional Terms Standard anatomical position Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward with thumbs pointing away from body Directional terms describe one body structure in relation to another body structure

Direction is always based on standard anatomical position Right and left refer to the body being viewed, not right and left of observer 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1-1 Orientation and Directional Terms 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1-2 Orientation and Directional Terms (continued) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 1.1-3 Orientation and Directional Terms (continued) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Regional Terms Two major divisions of body Axial Head, neck, and trunk

Appendicular Limbs (legs and arms) Regional terms designate specific areas within body divisions 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.7a Regional terms used to designate specific body areas. Cephalic Frontal Orbital Nasal Oral Mental Cervical Upper limb Acromial Brachial (arm)

Antecubital Thoracic Sternal Axillary Mammary Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Abdominal Umbilical Manus (hand) Pelvic Inguinal (groin) Palmar Pollex

Digital Lower limb Coxal (hip) Femoral (thigh) Patellar Pubic (genital) Crural (leg) Fibular or peroneal Pedal (foot) Tarsal (ankle) Thorax Abdomen Metatarsal Digital Hallux Anterior/Ventral 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1.7b Regional terms used to designate specific body areas. Cephalic Otic Occipital (back of head) Upper limb Acromial Brachial (arm) Cervical Olecranal Antebrachial (forearm) Back (dorsal) Scapular Vertebral Lumbar Manus (hand)

Metacarpal Sacral Gluteal Digital Perineal (between anus and external genitalia) Lower limb Femoral (thigh) Popliteal Sural (calf) Fibular or peroneal Pedal (foot) Calcaneal Back (Dorsum) Plantar

Posterior/Dorsal 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Planes and Sections Body planes Surfaces along which body or structures may be cut for anatomical study Three most common planes: Sagittal plane Frontal (coronal) plane Transverse (horizontal) plane Sections Cuts or sections made along a body plane Named after plane, so a sagittal cut results in a sagittal section 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Planes and Sections (cont.) Sagittal plane Divides body vertically into right and left parts Produces a sagittal section if cut along this plane

Midsagittal (median) plane Cut was made perfectly on midline Parasagittal plane Cut was off-centered, not on midline 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Planes and Sections (cont.) Frontal (coronal) plane Divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts (front and back) Produces a frontal or coronal section Transverse (horizontal) plane Divides body horizontally (90 to vertical plane) into superior and inferior parts (top and bottom) Produces a cross section Oblique section Result of cuts at angle other than 90 to vertical plane

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.8 Planes of the body with corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Median (midsagittal) plane Vertebral column Rectum Intestines 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Frontal (coronal) plane Right lung Liver Heart Left lung

Stomach Spleen Transverse plane Liver Aorta Pancreas Subcutaneous fat layer Spinal cord Spleen Figure 1.8a Planes of the body with corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Median (midsagittal) plane

Vertebral column Rectum Intestines 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.8b Planes of the body with corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Frontal (coronal) plane Right lung Liver 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Heart Left lung Stomach

Spleen Figure 1.8c Planes of the body with corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Transverse plane Liver Aorta Pancreas Subcutaneous fat layer 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Spinal cord Spleen 1.6 Body Cavities and Membranes Body contains internal cavities that are closed to

environment Cavities provide different degrees of protection to organs within them Two sets of cavities Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Dorsal Body Cavity Protects fragile nervous system Two subdivisions Cranial cavity Encases brain Vertebral cavity Encases spinal cord 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.9 Dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions.

Cranial cavity Cranial cavity (contains brain) Dorsal body cavity Vertebral cavity Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) Vertebral cavity

(contains spinal cord) Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Superior mediastinum Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Diaphragm Abdominal cavity (contains digestive

viscera) Abdominopelvic cavity Pelvic cavity (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Lateral view Anterior view Ventral body cavity (thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) Ventral Body Cavity Houses the internal organs (collectively called viscera)

Two subdivisions, which are separated by the diaphragm Thoracic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Ventral Body Cavity (cont.) Thoracic cavity Two pleural cavities Each cavity surrounds one lung Mediastinum Contains pericardial cavity Surrounds other thoracic organs, such as esophagus, trachea, etc. Pericardial cavity Encloses heart 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Ventral Body Cavity (cont.) Abdominopelvic cavity Abdominal cavity Contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver Pelvic cavity Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.9 Dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions. Cranial cavity Cranial cavity (contains brain) Dorsal

body cavity Vertebral cavity Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) Vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Superior mediastinum Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Diaphragm Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Abdominopelvic cavity Pelvic cavity (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum)

Lateral view Anterior view Ventral body cavity (thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) Clinical Homeostatic Imbalance 1.1 Whereas the pelvic bones provide limited protection to the pelvic cavity, the walls of abdominal cavity are formed by muscle only, so organs in this area are most vulnerable to trauma 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Ventral Body Cavity (cont.) Membranes in ventral body cavity Serosa (also called serous membrane)

Thin, double-layered membranes that cover surfaces in ventral body cavity Parietal serosa lines internal body cavity walls Visceral serosa covers internal organs (viscera) Double layers are separated by slit-like cavity filled with serous fluid Fluid secreted by both layers of membrane 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Ventral Body Cavity (cont.) Named for specific cavity and organs that they are associated with Pericardium Heart Pleurae Lungs Peritoneum Abdominopelvic cavity

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.10 Serous membrane relationships. Outer balloon wall (comparable to parietal serosa) Air (comparable to serous cavity) Inner balloon wall (comparable to visceral serosa) A fist thrust into a flaccid balloon demonstrates the relationship between the parietal and visceral serous membrane layers. Heart Parietal pericardium Pericardial space with serous fluid Visceral pericardium

The serosae associated with the heart. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Homeostatic Imbalance 1.2 Serous membranes can become inflamed as a result of infection or other causes Normally smooth layers can become rough and even can stick together, resulting in excruciating pain Examples: pleurisy and peritonitis 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Ventral Body Cavity (cont.) Abdominopelvic quadrants and regions Quadrants are divisions used primarily by medical personnel Abdominopelvic region is sectioned into quarters Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ)

Left lower quadrant (LLQ) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.11 The four abdominopelvic quadrants. Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Ventral Body Cavity (cont.) Abdominopelvic quadrants and regions (cont.) Nine divisions called regions, resembling a tic-tactoe grid, are used primarily by anatomists Right hypochondriac region Epigastric region Left hypochondriac region Right lumbar region Umbilical region Left lumber region Right Iliac (inguinal) region

Hypogastric region Left iliac (inguinal) region 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.12 The nine abdominopelvic regions. Liver Right hypochondriac region Right lumbar region Epigastric region Umbilical region Left

hypochondriac region Left lumbar region Gallbladder Ascending colon of large intestine Small intestine Cecum Right iliac (inguinal) region Hypogastric (pubic) region Left iliac (inguinal)

region Nine regions delineated by four planes 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Appendix Diaphragm Spleen Stomach Transverse colon of large intestine Descending colon of large intestine Initial part of sigmoid colon Urinary bladder Anterior view of the nine regions showing the superficial organs

Other Body Cavities In addition to the two main body cavities, the body has several smaller cavities that are exposed to environment Oral and digestive cavities Nasal cavity Orbital cavities Middle ear cavities Not exposed to environment Synovial cavities: joint cavities 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

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