投影片 1 - glocall.org

投影片 1 - glocall.org

How do students' academic words develop in writing throughout a year? Sources of learning and online referencing tool use Chien-Chih Chen, Hsien-Chin Liou ([email protected]) ([email protected]) National Tsing Hua University Department of Foreign Languages and Literature GloCALL 2010, Dec. 2 1 1. Introduction Vocabulary in writing Vocabulary is suggested to be an indispensable element in academic writing (Lee & Munice, 2006). The Academic Word List (Coxhead, 2000) has been considered to be one crucial learning target if L2 learners want to develop their academic literacy. 2

1. Introduction Substantial studies have proven the importance of vocabulary knowledge in developing L2 writing (Chao, 2003; Lee & Munice, 2006; Lin & Liou, 2009). However, to date, there is very limited longitudinal research that investigates academic vocabulary development in writing. 3 1. Introduction Corpus tools With the advent of technology, ereferencing tools such as concordancers are commonly used by EFL learners in Taiwan, and have been supported by empirical studies for their effectiveness (e.g., bilingual dictionaries, Laufer & Kimmel, 1997; electronic dictionaries, Tang, 1997; concordancers, Lee & Liou, 2003). 4 1. Introduction However, very few studies investigated the role which ereferencing tools play in learners

productive academic vocabulary use from a long-term development perspective. 5 1. Introduction The purpose of the current study is to conduct a longitudinal study by tracking learners academic vocabulary development in writing for a year, and increase our understanding of the role which referencing tools play in students academic vocabulary development in writing, among other explicit or implicit sources of learning. 6 Introduction Research questions: 1. How does the students use of academic words develop over time? 1a. How does the students use of academic words develop over a year in terms of frequency? 1b. How does the students accuracy of academic vocabulary use develop over time?

2. What is the source of acquisition of academic words? What role do referencing tools play to help academic word use in writing? 3. Will the students become more confident in the use of academic vocabulary over the academic year? How do individual students attitudes toward referencing tools change over time to help learning of academic words? 7 2. Brief Literature Review- Empirical studies on learners vocabulary development in writing Explicit lexical instruction (8 weeks) Authors Lin & Liou (2010) 1 group pretest- Incidental +explicit Li & Schmitt (2009)

posttest Participants 25 third-year EFL college students 1 Chinese MA-TESL student observed in a year Findings 1. A slight improvement in the accurate use of academic words in writing. 2. Part of SS taught voc remained after 4 weeks in the delayed posttest. 3. Positive attitudes toward the Learning resources: explicit instruction, 16%; feedback, 5.6%; academic reading, 21.9%

Became more confident in word usage intervention of the lexical instruction. Future research A longer period of observation is needed. Require more longitudinal studies (if applicable in other 8 contexts) 2. Literature Review-Empirical studies on the effective use of concordancers on writing or vocabulary Positive effects of corpus tools on writing/ word use Authors Yeh, Liou, & Yu (2007) Kaur, &

Hegelheimer (2005) Yoon (2008) Participants 19 college students, an intact freshman course 18 undergraduate SS 6 focal SS in a graduatelevel advanced ESL academic writing course Findings More than 50% of the errors in SS writing were corrected via concordancer. Had a positive attitude toward the tool. Learners, with a concordancer and the online

dictionary, are more likely to transfer word knowledge to writing tasks. 1. Learners need more exposure to technology use to effectively search corpora. 2. Corpora help learners solve language problems in writing. Future research We need studies that examine the effects different kinds of referencing tools have for language learning over a long period of time. 9 3. Methodology (Our study) Participants: 3 voluntary third-year English major students who enrolled in a one-year

required course, Reading and Writing II. Written assignments: 7 short essays (such as Freshman experience, Community service for a college degree) and one research paper (of different individual topics) Interviews: 7 done after each assignment; sources of academic word learning, confidence of word use (Li & Schmitt, 2009) 10 Chinese-English concordancer ( ) http://candle.fl.nthu.edu.tw/totalrecall/totalrecall/totalrecall.aspx?funcID=1 Inquiry outcome of a word at TANGO (collocation finder, http://candle.fl.nthu.edu.tw/collocation/webform2.aspx?funcID=9) 12 3. Methodology Data collection Across one academic year 1. Students writing assignments (six essays plus one short research paper)

2. Students responses to seven semi-structured interviews 13 1a. How does the students use of academic words develop over a year in terms of frequency ? Data analysis x x x x x x x Compare their frequency across the 7 assignments Lexical frequency profile (www.lextutor.ca) highlight and calculate ratio of academic

word types in each essay show the changes of the ratio across the 7 assignments (Li & Schmitt, 2009). 14 15 1b. How does the students accuracy of academic vocabulary use develop over time? changes of accuracy ratio across the 7 assignments AWL Highlighter highlight academic words check students grammatical and collocation errors (TANGO & a senior professor in the field of Applied Linguistics) remove inaccurate academic word types Vocabprofile to calculate academic word types AW accuracy rate = No. of accurate AW/ Total No. of AW (Lin & Liou, 2007) 16 2. What is the source of acquisition of academic words? What role do corpus tools play to help

academic word use in writing? During the interview sessions, we asked students where they thought they had learned the highlighted AW categorize learning sources asked SS what referencing tools they used in writing and how the referencing tools helped them in AW use (Li & Schmitt, 2009). 17 3. Will the students become more confident in the use of academic vocabulary over one year? How do individual students attitudes toward referencing tools change over time to help learning of academic words? We asked students level of confidence toward academic word types used in each essay. Confidence percentage=No. of word types/sum of word types example Andys less confident rate No. of types/ percentage

Essay2 1/0.06 Essay3 2/0.12 Essay4 3/0.14 Essay5 3/0.23 Essay6 2/0.10 Essay7 5/0.06 1/16=0.06

18 3. Will the students become more confident in the use of academic vocabulary over one year? How do individual students attitudes toward referencing tools change over time to help learning of academic words? Students attitudes toward referencing tools were elicited in each interview and compared over time. 19 Findings: Students writing corpora 2nd Essay 3rd Essay 4th Essay 5th Essay

6th Essay 7th Essay Total participants 1st Essay Andy 720 693 689 678 620 582

1591 5573 Joy 390 605 463 560 455 442 1294 4209 Christine 553

631 592 530 309 598 1458 4671 Total running words 14453 20 1a. How does the students use of academic words develop over a year in terms of frequency ? Academic word ratio (preliminary) participants 1st Essay Topic:

Seize the moment 2nd Essay Topic: My first semester in Tsing Hua 3rd Essay Topic: My shopping and decision making 4th Essay Topic: Video games 2.08 3.01

3.03 3.68 1.54 1.98 4.96 4.46 5th Topic: Serve or fail 6th 7th Research Topic: paper On Competiti on 3.23

4.27 7.44 4.52 Andy AW frequen cy 7.29 Joy AW frequen cy 5.00 Christine AW frequen 3.07

5.85 4.05 4.31 21 7.44 8.26 5.38 : 1a. How does the students use of academic words develop over a year in terms of frequency of word type ? Preliminary findings Three learners demonstrate different development patterns of academic word use over one year. Andy-the only participant that had the most stable increase across seven essays. Joys and Christines frequency of academic word use, however, fluctuated to some degree. Three participants all had an increase of academic word use, if we

compared ratios in the very first essay with the last essay. 22 1b. How does the students accuracy of academic vocabulary use develop over time? Example Participant assignment Andy 2 3 4 Academic words Accuracy rate Achievement achieve anticipate ignore encountered diversity adapt primary style encountered deducing physical undergoing adjust respond conclusion finally

0.88 Teams purchase motivate procedure processes likewise colleagues appreciate consumers styles principle computer induced factors function rational purchased similarly Adult self-achievement achievement factors available instance role culture interaction period interact establish virtual crucial appropriate normal overseas period processes contacting mature concentrate interaction positive benefited 0.94 0.95 23 1b. How does the students accuracy of academic vocabulary use develop over time?

Andys accuracy rate was the most stable. Joy and Christine, in contrast, both had one slight drop. They overall had improved their accuracy rates, if we compared the ratios in the second essay with the last essay (Andy, 0.88, 1; Joy, 0.86, 1; Christine, 0.9, 1). 24 2. What is the source of acquisition of academic words? What role do referencing tools play to help academic word use in writing? Acquisition sources Andy Joy Christine Total academic word types in students essays/ Percentage Previous learning (PL) 171(75%) 50(29.9%) 185(78%) Academic reading (AR) 7(3%)

63(37.7%) 14(5.9%) Instruction (I) 3(1%) 22(13%) 1(0.4%) Referencing tools (D) 9(3.9%) 13(7.7%) 29(12%) Courses taken NA 4(2%) 1(0.4%)

Novel 1(0.4%) 3(1%) NA* Movie NA 2(1%) NA Peer NA NA 2(0.8%) Spoken

NA NA NA Teacher 2(0.8%) 11(6%) 1(0.4%) Internet 1(0.4%) NA NA PL & AR 23(10%) NA

NA PL& D 6(2.6%) NA NA PL & I 1(0.4%) NA NA PL & T 2(0.8%) 3(1%) 3(1%)

AR & I 1(0.4%) NA NA AR & D 1(0.4%) NA NA Total 228 167 235 25 2. What is the source of acquisition of

academic words? What role do referencing tools play to help academic word use in writing? Predominant learning sourcesprevious learning (Andy, 75%; Christine, 78%) & academic reading (Joy, 37.7%). 26 2. What is the source of acquisition of academic words? What role do referencing tools play to help academic word use in writing? In addition to previous learning, students acquired academic words from other different sources. This fact reveals that words are not acquired solely from one single source, but from the accumulation of different sources. 3 learners data show different learning sources. Andys second highest learning source is from previous learning and academic reading (10%); Joy, previous learning (29.9%) and Christine, referencing tools (12%). 27 2. What is the source of acquisition of academic words? What role do e-referencing tools play to

help academic word use in writing? Name Andy Joy Christine E-Referencing tools Lingoes, Yahoo and Wikipedia Tango, TotalRecall, Yahoo, and Google Yahoo, Google and an electronic pocket dictionary. How did referencing tools help them?

Lingoes - spelling and usage problems. Yahoo -synonyms and antonyms, Wikipediafinding more content about a word. Yahoo and Googlespelling, meaning and usage. Yahoo and Google spelling and usage. the electronic pocket dictionaryLevel of confidence of further check word a word was low-use usage TotalRecall and Tango to check the usage of a Tango- enhanced her level of word (a variety of example sentences for confidence towards users references.) word use; offered example sentences

to help her ensure her written expressions 28 A snapshot of Lingoes (http://lingoes.net/) dictionary and text translation software by Kevin Yau 29 3. Will the students become more confident in the use of academic vocabulary over the academic year? How do individual students attitudes toward referencing tools change over time to help learning of academic words? Andy's Level of Confidnce in Aacademic Word Use Percentage of Academic Words 100% 80% 60% Less confident 40%

Confident 20% Very confident 0% Essay2 Essay3 Essay4 Essay5 Essay6 Essay7 Assignments 30 3. Will the students become more confident in the use of academic vocabulary over the academic year? How do individual students attitudes toward referencing tools change over time to help learning of academic words?

P e r ce n t age o f A cad e m ic W o r d s Joy's Level of Confidence in Academic Word Use 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% Less confident 40% Confident 30% Very Confident 20% 10% 0% Essay2 Essay3 Essay4

Essay5 Essay6 Essay7 Assignments 31 3. Will the students become more confident in the use of academic vocabulary over the academic year? How do individual students attitudes toward referencing tools change over time to help learning of academic words? Percentage of Academic Words Christine 's Level of Confidence in Academic Word Use 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

0% Less confident Confident Very confident Essay2 Essay3 Essay4 Essay5 Essay6 Essay7 Assignments 32 3. Will the students become more confident in the use of academic vocabulary over the academic year? How do individual students attitudes toward referencing tools change over time to help learning of academic words? Altered attitudes Andy: Lingoesteachers FBYahoo

(antonyms & synonyms) Joy: Yahoo & Googleresearchers introduction to corpus toolsTango & Totalrecall (confirm word usage) Did not alter attitudes Christine: used Yahoo/Google & an electronic dictionary 33 Brief discussion 1a. How does the students use of academic words develop over a year in terms of frequency ? 1b. How does the students accuracy of academic vocabulary use develop over time? Findings :Three participants exhibited different development of academic vocabulary use in writing. similar to LarsenFreemans finding (2006): learners followed different routes to SLA. Findings: Although three participants overall had improved their academic word use with respect to frequency and accuracy, not all of them showed consistent improvement across all essays. echo Li and Schmitts finding (2009):her participant did use lexical phrases more appropriately over time, but did not manifest a consistent increase in the use of lexical phrases in writing. 34

2. What is the source of acquisition of academic words? What role do referencing tools play to help academic word use in writing? Predominant sourcesprevious learning (students need to memorize a lot of words for the Joint College Entrance Exam, but they did not do so in university.) and academic reading echo Li and Schmitts finding (2009): previous learning (39.2%) +academic reading (21.9%) 35 2. What is the source of acquisition of academic words? What role do referencing tools play to help academic word use in writing? Similar to previous studies (Yeh, Liou, & Yu, 2007; Yoon, 2008), the finding of our study also lent support to the beneficial effects of referencing tools on students writing. students pointed out that referencing tools were indeed important during their writing processes and helped them with the usage of academic words.

Ex. Joy: Totalrecall +Tango (confirm word usage) Andy: Lingoes (usage) Yahoo (synonyms and antonyms) 36 3. Will the students become more confident in the use of academic vocabulary over the academic year? How do individual students attitudes toward referencing tools change over time to help learning of academic words? Students confidence of academic word use increased over time though the increase was inconsistent. Similar to Li and Schmitts finding (2009): inconsistent growth of a participants confidence in lexical phrase use. 37 3. Will the students become more confident in the use of academic vocabulary over the academic year? How do individual students attitudes toward referencing tools change over time to help learning of academic words?

Students revealed that: referencing tools helped them confirm word usage=> thus students became more confident in word usage. 38 3. Will the students become more confident in the use of academic vocabulary over the academic year? How do individual students attitudes toward referencing tools change over time to help learning of academic words? Our participants have different changes in attitudes toward referencing tool use=> the same as Yoons finding (2008) In particular, both Christine(a participant in our study) and June (a participant in Yoons study) held positive attitudes toward corpus tool use but did not prompt them to use the tool. Positive attitudes but non-use 39 Pedagogical implications Learners employed a variety of learning sources provides some guidelines for teachers curriculum designs. The teacher

should offer a diversity of learning sources to satisfy students needs. Various kinds of e-referencing tools should be introduced to students so as to help them use academic words more appropriately in writing. 40 Conclusion 3 participants overall had improved their academic word use with respect to academic word frequency and accuracy in writing, but, not all of them showed consistent improvement across all essays. Our findings indicate that both explicit and implicit learning sources contribute to learners academic word learning, and ereferencing tools contributed to academic word learning for writing. Thank you. The paper is partially funded by National Science Council under the grant number NSC98-2411-H-007033-MY3. Taipei. 42 References

Chao, Y. C. (2003). Vocabulary abilities needed for a TOEFL TYPE Test of writing. Selected Papers of the Fourteenth International Symposium on English Teaching (pp. 173-187). Taipei: Crane Publishing Co., Ltd. Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34, 213-238. Hinkel, E. (2004). Teaching academic ESL writing- practical techniques in vocabulary and grammar. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Larsen-Freeman, D. (2006). The emergency of complexity, fluency, and accuracy in the oral and written production of five Chinese learners of English. Applied Linguistics, 27, 590-619. Laufer, B., & Kimmel, M. (1997). Bilingualised dictionaries: How learners really use them. System, 25, 361-369. Lee, S. L., & Munice, J. (2006). From receptive to productive: Improving ESL learners use of vocabulary in postreading composition task. TESOL Quarterly, 40, 295-320. Li, J., & Schmitt, N. (2009). The acquisition of lexical phrases in academic writing: A longitudinal case study. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18, 85-102. Lin, M. C., & Liou, H. C. (2009). Expansion of EFL academic vocabulary for writing via

the web-based lexical instruction, English Teaching and Learning, 33, 95-146. 43 References Lin, M. C., & Liou, H. C. (2007). The development of college learners academic vocabulary in writing: Appropriateness and accuracy. Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China (pp. 184191). (May 5-6, 2007. Taipei, Taiwan). Taipei: Taiwan ELT Publishing Co., Ltd. McDonald, S., & Salomone, W. (2008). The writers response: A reading-based approach to writing. (4th ed.). Boston: Thomson. Nation, P., & Laufer, B. (1995). Vocabulary size and use: Lexical richness in L2 written production. Applied Linguistics, 16, 302-322. Ortega, L., & Iberri-Shea, G. (2005). Longitudinal research in second language acquisition: Recent trends and future directions. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 26-45. Schmitt, N. (2000). Vocabulary in language teaching. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 44

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Introduction to PostGIS Workshop - CENN

    Introduction to PostGIS Workshop - CENN

    Navigate to the "Databases" section of the database tree and open "Edit New Object New Database". Add a new database named "postgis", with "postgres" as the owner "template1" as the template and "pg_default" as the tablespace. Open up the new...
  • pmg-assets.s3-website-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com

    pmg-assets.s3-website-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com

    TRANSFORMATION. Transformation involves the orchestrated and deliberate redesign of the genetic architecture of anorganisation on the basis of reorganising, restructuring, revital
  • FY16 Controller Call Series The presentation will begin

    FY16 Controller Call Series The presentation will begin

    Halloween Safety Tips . Invoice Status Look Up Application Updates. AP Dashboard in E=nterprise Analysis. Communication Plan. Deployment & Training Plan. AGENDA. Phase 1: Current Application was deployed January 2015. Currently utilized by both Sodexo (internal) and Vendors (external)
  • The lived reality of dignity of risk in

    The lived reality of dignity of risk in

    The lived reality of dignity of risk in residential aged care: An empirical study. Catherine Joyce, Lyndal Bugeja, Justin Oakley, Carolina Weller, Sharon Licqurish, Laura Zark, Joseph Ibrahim.. Anglicare Australia National Conference. September 2019
  • Knowledge Organiser Year 9 Materials Introduction Unit

    Knowledge Organiser Year 9 Materials Introduction Unit

    Foil Lined Board. White card, usually coated or laminated with aluminium foil bonded on one side. 200-400gsm, stiff, lightweight coatings to improve functionality. Takeaway containers and lids, used to retain heat for longer. Foam Core Board.
  • Exploring Earth Science The Earth and Moon

    Exploring Earth Science The Earth and Moon

    Exploring Earth Science The Earth and Moon Third Grade Mrs. Farrer's Class State Science Core Travel along and we will find out where we live in space and what we can see in space.
  • Snímek 1

    Snímek 1

    Zaměření EK na rok 2011 Monitorování správné implementace evropských zákonů o rovném zacházení (především ve vztahu k direktivám 2004/113/ES and 2006/54/ES). ... založeného na pohlaví a obchodování s lidmi Překonávání genderových stereotypů Priority a postupy MV při ...
  • First Principles of Valuation - Leeds School of Business

    First Principles of Valuation - Leeds School of Business

    Using Economic Base Tools For example, if the LQ for an industry in a region is 1.5 (i.e. there is a concentration of the industry in the region), then the proportion of industry employment that is basic is