ภาพนิ่ง 1 - elsd.ssru.ac.th

ภาพนิ่ง 1 - elsd.ssru.ac.th

1.

(Hydrocarbon compound)Hydrocarbon compound) 1.1 (Alkane)Alkane)) (Hydrocarbon compound)Saturated hydrocarbon) IUPAC (Hydrocarbon compound)International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)

- (Hydrocarbon compound)-ane)ane) ( )

(Hydrocarbon compound)alkyl group) 1 di, tri, tetra, 5ethyl-ane)2methylheptane 2, 3 dimethylpentane

3, 3 dimethylhexane (Hydrocarbon compound)cyclo-ane)) methylcyclobutane 1, 3 dimethylcyclopentane

ethylcyclohexane 3 cyclopentyl 2, 5 dimethylhexane 1 ethyl 3 methylcyclohexane 1-4 5-16 16 18

(Hydrocarbon compound)substitution) (Hydrocarbon compound)Elimination) 1.2 (Alkane)Alkane))

2 (Hydrocarbon compound)Unsaturated hydrocarbon) 1 (Hydrocarbon compound)-ane) ene) 2 (Hydrocarbon compound)-ane) diene)

IUPAC 3methylcyclopentene 2ethyl1,3cyclohexadiene Cis-ane)2-ane)butene Trans-ane)2-ane)butene

2-4 5-18 18 (Hydrocarbon compound)Addition)

(Hydrocarbon compound)Polymerization) 1.3 (Alkane)Alkyne)) (Hydrocarbon compound)-ane)yne)

- (Hydrocarbon compound)enyne) (Hydrocarbon compound)ethyne) (Hydrocarbon compound)acetylene) acetylene methylacetylene

3 methyl 1 pentyne dimethylacetylene 1 hexene 5 yne

2-4 5-18 18 (Hydrocarbon compound)Addition)

(Alkane)Aromatic hydrocarbon) 6 (Hydrocarbon compound)Benzene)

(Hydrocarbon compound)resonance)

IUPAC methylbenzene (Hydrocarbon compound)toluene) ethylbenzene vinylbenzene

(Hydrocarbon compound)styrene) hydroxybenzene (Hydrocarbon compound)phenol) aminobenzene (Hydrocarbon compound)aniline) nitrobenzene benzaldehyde

chlorobenzene benzoic acid (Hydrocarbon compound)phenyl group) 3ethyl5phenyl1pentene biphenyl

1 1, 2-ane)diethylbenzene

1,3-ane)diethylbenzene 1,4-ane)diethylbenzene o -ane)diethylbenzene m -ane)diethylbenzene p -ane)diethylbenzene 1,2,3-ane)trimethylbenzene

3-ane)bromo-ane)2-ane)nitrotoluene (Hydrocarbon compound)polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon ) naphthalene Pyrene phenanthrene

anthracene Coronene (Hydrocarbon compound)substitution) 1 1.

1.6) 3--2, 4, 1.1) 3- 5- 1.7) 4- 1.2) 3- 1.8) 1--1, 2, 5, 5- 1.3) -3, 4-

-3- 1.9) 5-(1.4) 2--2- ) 1.5) 1,2- 1.10) 1- 2. 1,4- 10.8

(Br2) 3. 1 C7H8O 4. A C8H10

(Hydrocarbon compound)Oxidation) (Hydrocarbon compound)Baeyer test)

(pH )

(Hydrocarbon compound)Catalytic hydrogenation) alkene hydrogen gas Pt 2. 2.1 (Alkane)Alcohol) (Hydrocarbon compound)-ane) OH)

ROH (Hydrocarbon compound)primary alcohol) (Hydrocarbon compound)secondary alcohol) (Hydrocarbon compound)tertiary alcohol)

IUPAC OH OH alkene alkyne alcohol hydroxyl ol group

C O H

Hydration of Alkenes Hydrolysis of alkyl halides 1.

HCl, HBr HCl 1O, 2O 3O alcohol ZnCl2 Lucus reagent 2. (Hydrocarbon compound)Dehydration)

3o > 2o > 1o 3. (Hydrocarbon compound)Esterification) 4.

5. oxidation Reduction [O]O] KMnO4 [O]R] LiAlH4 NaBH4

.2 (Alkane)e)the)r) (Hydrocarbon compound)R-ane)O-ane)R) R R

IUPAC RO-ane) RO-ane) RO-ane) alkoxy group

oxa-ane) oxacyclopropane oxacyclobutane oxacyclopentane 1,4-ane)dioxacyclohexane

n-ane)heptane 98 oC methyl n-ane)pentylether 100 oC n-ane)hexylalcohol 157 oC

Williamson synthesis

(Alkane)CH3CH2OCH2CH3) 2 1. 1.1) 2-ane) 1.2) 3-ane)-ane)2-ane)1.3)

2-ane) 2. C3H6O 3. 7 4. 5.

C2H5ClO 6. () -ane)42, 78, 117, 198 6.1) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH 6.2) CH3CH2OH 6.4) CH CH CH 6.3) OHCH CH OH 2 2

3 2 3 (Alkane)Alde)hyde) and Ke)tone))

e al (Hydrocarbon compound)-ane)CHO) 1 methanal (Hydrocarbon compound)formaldehyde) ethanal (Hydrocarbon compound)acetaldehyde) 2-ane)chloropropanal

2-ane)methylhexanal e one (Hydrocarbon compound)-ane) CO -ane) ) propanone (Hydrocarbon compound)acetone) 2,4-ane)dimethyl-ane)3-ane)pentanone (Hydrocarbon compound)diisopropyl ketone)

[O]O] K2Cr2O7 / H2SO4 KMnO4 / H+

Tollens reagent Fehlings reagent Benedicts reagent Tollens reagent

Fehlings reagent Cu(Hydrocarbon compound)II)tartrate (Hydrocarbon compound)I) Benedict s solution Cu(Hydrocarbon compound)II)citrate

() (Hydrocarbon compound)carboxylic acid) (Carboxylic acid) )

(-COOH) ) e oic HCOOH methanoic acid (Hydrocarbon compound)formic acid) 1 CH COOH ethanoic acid (Hydrocarbon compound)acetic acid)

3 CH3CH2CH2COOH CH3CH2CH2COOH CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH propanoic acid butanoic acid pentanoic acid (CH) 3)2CH) CH) 2CH) 2COOH) 4 methylpentanoic acid)

1. 3

? 2.

HCl HNO3

(Hydrocarbon compound)Esterification) Formic acid ..1670

Acetic acid

glacial acetic acid .5 (Alkane)Este)r) RCOOR

-yl -oate carboxylic acid alcohol Ethyl acetate

(Hydrocarbon compound)Esterfication) Hydrolysis Sponification 3. 3.1 (Alkane)Amine)) 3

(Hydrocarbon compound)primary amine: 1amine) (Hydrocarbon compound)secondary amine: 2amine) (Hydrocarbon compound)tertiary amine: 3amine) propylamine

cyclohexylamine 1 Nalkyl N,N-ane)dimethyl-ane)isopropylamine N-ane)methyl-ane)isopropylamine

NH OH

3.1 (Alkane)Amide))

RCONH2 2 RCONHR/ RCONR/2 IUPAC e amide

1 methanamide ethanamide butanamide 1

N,Ndimethylformamide Nmethylbenzamide

NH2 CHNH2 CO2 NH3

1. . Hydrolysis 3

1. 1.6) 3-Cyclohexylpropanoic 1.1) 4-Bromohexanal acid 1.7) N-ane)methyl-ane) 1.2) 3-ane)Methyl-ane)2-ane) isopropylamine butanone 1.8) 3-Cyclohexylpropanal 1.3) 2,3Dimethylbutanoic acid

1.4) Cyclohexanone 1.5) tert-ane)Butyl propanoate 1.11) N-ane) ethylformamide 1.9) N-ane) ethylcyclohexylamine

1.10) isopentyl pentanoate 1.12) N-ane)ethyl-ane)N-ane) methylcyclohexylamine butylamine butanol 2. 3. Propylamine, N-ane)ethyl-ane)N-ane)methylamine, trimethylamine

3 4. Isobutanol, tert-ane)butanol, butanol 5. C4H9NH2 -ane)NH2 6. A C H O

A 1.37 3.0 1.64 7. A ) CH3CH2CH2CH3 ) )

) ) ) ) ) CH3OCH2CH3 CH3COOH CH3CH2CH2NH2 CH3CONH2 CH3COCH3 CH3CH2CHO

HCOOCH3 8. H+, ) CH3CH2OH+HCOOH ? Pt ) H-ane)CC-ane)C-ane)CH3+H2 C2H5? H )

C=C + HBr H H?

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