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COMMON IGC QUESTIONS FROM PAPER 1PolicyOrganisationPlanning1Elements of health & SafetyManagement SystemImplementingMeasuring PerformanceAuditing with Checking and Corrective ActionsReviewing Performance for Continual ImprovementMay be a legal requirementInsurance RequirementEstablish Root Cause2Accident investigation –reasonsPrevent a RecurrenceIdentify CostsImprove a Safety CultureTo Learn From the EventImprove MoraleImmediate:1. Lack of caring2. Lack of perception3. Wilful Cause (on purpose)3An accident case – 4 immediatecauses & 4 underlyingcauses(root causes)4. Lack of attentionRoot Causes1. Management System Failure2. Negative safety culture3. Lack of a safe system of work4. Inadequate information, instruction, training & supervisionPage 1 of 61

DateTimeLocationInjured person(s)WitnessesInjuries / losses sustainedEquipment / tools involved4Information in an accidentinvestigation reportCosts estimated / knownWho investigatedIntroductionSummaryMain body – observations, legal breaches, likely ion listComplexity of the work to be undertakenAge of the individualThe attitude of the individualAny special needsPrevious experience5Outline the factors that maydetermine the level ofsupervision an employee shouldreceive during their initial periodwithin a company.Previous situation reports (past accident situations)The peer group attitudeType of PPE that may be required and the need for correct use(i.e. harness – can fall into incorrect use – over a time period)Level of supervision availableType of work being undertakenSubstances used and likely effectsLegal requirementsPage 2 of 61

InformationInstructionTrainingSupervision6Ways of reducing the likelihoodof human error in the workplace.Risk AssessmentConsultationAdequate rest / recovery periodsMonitoring performanceTasks fit the person and their abilities and capabilitiesNot been exposed to the situation in the pastHas worked in the same job without ill-effectTheir attitude – does not careThe person may be tired7Reasons why the seriousness ofa hazard may beunderestimated by someoneexposed to itNot had awareness training (initial or refresher)Over-reliance on PPEControls not functioning e.g. LEVAlarms not operational (CO H2S)Effects of medication / drugs / AlcoholCumulative impacts of failures – one adding to another andhaving more serious consequencesLead by exampleRecognising peoples effortsRewarding effortsListening to employees concerns8Ways in which managers canmotivate employees to worksafely.Investigating accidents and near missesNo short cutting safetyExplaining why certain actions have to be taken (why has thePPE got to be worn)Consultation e.g. meetings periodicallyTraining, Instruction and Information provisionPage 3 of 61

A means of working in a safe manner :A safe system of work is the systematic examination of a task inorder to identify all hazards.9Meaning of the term safesystem of work'.The aim is to produce a safe work method that will eliminate orreduce the risks associated with the identified hazards.It is important to involve employees that carry out the work orwith detailed knowledge of the activity, so that the system ofwork produced is effective and practical as well as safe.Involving employees with the process helps them to understandwhy this level of control has to be established and maintained.The safe system of work will include how the task is to be done,what equipment is required, what communication needs must bemet and who can authorise variations to the procedure.Risk Assessment (potential hazards)Job DescriptionsPermit to work conditionsDescription of the work to be done?Existing instructions or procedures that may need to be adopted/ adaptedWho is required to do the work and what skills and abilities willbe needed10Sources of information that mayneed to be consulted whendeveloping a safe system ofwork.Supervisory requirements and competencies based work to bedoneInstructions for any special tools, protective clothing orequipment (e.g. breathing apparatus) that may be needed?Availability of special tools, protective equipmentTraining records of the people who are to do the work – are theyadequately trainedSpecific isolations and locking-off needs for the work to be donesafely?What other site activities are occurring - will the work interferethem or other activities create a hazard to the people doing theworkDetermination of the respective permissionsAvailable communication facilities - how will the people doing thework communicate with each otherEmergency procedures and preparedness plans – need toinvolve emergency procedures – local rulesPage 4 of 61

Check the existence of a safety policy.Examine the contractor's procedures for ensuring health andsafety at work.Analyse the quality of the contractor's induction and on-goingtraining programmes.Determine the level and coverage afforded by the contractor'sinsurance policies.Determine whether the contractor is a member of a reputabletrade association.Has the contractor undertaken similar work / projectsHas the contractor had enforcement action taken against them11Factors that could be consideredwhen assessing the health andsafety competence of acontractorDo they come with good referencesAre the method statements suitable and sufficientThe level of supervision that they will deployThe system used for managing the contract must be suited tothe type of work being undertaken – reviewing previouscontracts may help with thisThe responsibilities of each of the parties involved should beclearly defined, agreed and allocated before the start of theprojectThe terms of the contract should require work to be undertakenin accordance with defined and agreed working standards andbudgetary allocation should be made for undertaking the work inthe defined mannerAdequate backing and authority must be given to managementcontractors so that they can effectively undertake sitemanagement activities.Page 5 of 61

A suitable and sufficient risk assessment should identifysignificant risks arising out of work.Trivial risks can usually be ignored, as can risks arising from theroutine activities associated with life in general, unless the workactivity compounds those risks or there is evidence of significantrelevance to the particular work activity.12Describe the criteria that mustbe met for the risk assessmentto be deemed „suitable andsufficient‟The degree of sophistication of the risk assessment will bedirectly linked to the size and nature of the undertaking and thehazards and risks likely to be encountered.Employers should ensure that where specialist advisers areused, those advisors have sufficient understanding of theparticular work activity they are advising on.Everyone involved in that process - employer, employees andspecialist will often need to be all working together.Employers in the UK for example are expected to takereasonable steps, such as reading Health and Safety Executiveguidance notes, the trade press etc., to familiarise themselveswith the hazards and risks at their work.The objectives of the training - what do you hope to achieve bygiving the training and what the participants will obtain from itThe trainer - whether in-house or external - will have a majorimpact on the effective presentation of the training and thus theinformation retention of the participantsThe venue in which the training is held can have a significanteffect on the training in general if it is in poor condition or poorlyresourced, the training will be less successful than if it is at leastin a good condition and comfortable13Factors to be considered whiledeveloping a health & safetytraining programme for anorganizationThe number of people involved in the training will affect thequality of the training - in some cases larger numbers allow forgreater group interaction, which can help, whilst in other casessmaller numbers allow for more teacher - participant interactionwhich can also helpThe means of delivering the teaching will significantly affect mostof the other factors here, although it does not necessarily haveto be the deciding factorThe company culture and the support from the managementteam is also a significant factor in the planning of trainingdeliveryPage 6 of 61

Participation of attendeesLevel of responseAbility to correctly respond to questionsBeing able to demonstrate understanding14Various measures that might beused to assess the effectivenessof the trainingOn the job follow-up for complianceReduction of accidents / incidents in aspects of the trainingdeliveredFormal feedback from attendeesPersonal feedbackOthers asking for similar trainingAttentiveness throughoutMay be legal requirementsMay assist in developing training plans / identifying gapsMay be required for evidence following an incident / accident15Reasons why it is important foran employee to keep the trainingrecords of his employeesMay reduce penalties in a court of lawInsurance premium reviewsCompleting risk assessmentsCPD for the workerTo save duplication of trainingManagement system compliancePage 7 of 61

A clear and evident commitment from the most senior managerdownwards, which provides a climate for safety in whichmanagement‟s objectives and the need for appropriatestandards are communicated and in which constructiveexchange of information at all levels is positively encouragedAn analytical and imaginative approach identifying possibleroutes to human factor failure. This may well require access tospecialist adviceProcedures and standards for all aspects of critical work andmechanisms for reviewing themEffective monitoring systems to check the implementation of theprocedures and standardsIncident investigation and the effective use of information drawnfrom such investigations16Outline the ways in whichemployers can motivate theiremployees to comply with HSEAdequate and effective supervision with the power to remedydeficiencies when found.Effective health and safety management systemEncouraging a positive health and safety cultureEnsuring adequate and competency of supervisionInsisting on effective incident reporting and analysisWilling to learn from experienceClearly visible health and safety leadershipA suitable team structuresEfficient communication systems and practicesProviding adequate staffing levelsEnsuring suitable work patterns are implementedRecognition and rewardLegal RequirementAllow investigationTo establish immediate, underlying and root causes17Factors why accidents needs tobe reportedTo prevent a recurrence following implementation ofrecommendationsA requirement of the management systemAccurate statistics to be maintainedAllows the identification of trends thus introduction ofpreventative measuresTo ensure appropriate contingencies into the futurePage 8 of 61

Blame cultureProne to disciplinary actionFeeling of guild18Factors that discourage theemployees from reportingaccidentsLoss of incentivesJeopardises advancement / promotionTo many formalitiesEmbarrassmentMay be used as a poor example to others (pride)Allows the comparison of health and safety performance to bemeasuredMeasurement allows managementAllows comparisons with others – benchmarkingTo identify if KPI‟s are being met19Why is it important for anorganization to set targets interms of HSE performanceTo identify if compensative measures are required (not waitingtoo long to take action)To identify organisational needs (training, guidance)Proof of achievement or not as the case may beTo give the organisation and its employees something to aim for/ surpassTo identify health and safety complianceTo identify if introduced controls are workingReduction in the number of accidentsReduction in the number of a particular type of accident /incident / type of ill healthYear on year comparisons – continual improvementReduction in the total number of last daysReduction in accident severity206 types of targets in terms ofHSEBenchmarking within / outside the organisationNumber of training deliveredNumber of assessments reviewedNumber of inspections undertakenReduction in the number of non-compliancesReduction in the number of serious non-compliancesA reduction in the number of days to resolve non-compliancesPage 9 of 61

Contractor evaluation could be something as simple as ensuringthat they deliver against the terms of the contract.Are they providing and maintaining plant and systems of workwhich are, so far as is reasonably practicable, safe and withoutrisks to healthAre they taking of steps, so far as is reasonably practicable, toensure safety and absence of risks to health in connection withthe use, handling, storage and transport of articles andsubstances21Contractor management –evaluation of contractorsAre they providing such information, instruction, training andsupervision as necessary to ensure, so far as is reasonablypracticable, the health and safety at work of their employeesAre they maintaining places of work that are safe and withoutrisks to health, so far as is reasonably practicable, and theprovision of a safe means of access to and egress from theworkplaceAre they providing and maintaining a working environment that,so far as is reasonably practicable, is safe and without risks tohealth and is adequately provided with facilities andarrangements for employees' welfare at work.Are accident levels within reasonable expectations for the typeof work undertakenIs the level of supervision appropriate to the skill levels presentor the risks / hazards posedPage 10 of 61

Proactive measures of performance that monitor compliancewith the OH&S management programme, operational criteriaand applicable legislation and regulatory requirements;This should contain the elements necessary to have a proactivesystem and should include:a) Monitoring of the achievement of specific plans, establishedperformance criteria and objectives;b) The systematic inspection of work systems, premises, plantand equipment;c) Surveillance