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A GUIDE TO THEArab-Israeli ConflictBy MitchellG. BardAmerican-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE)2810 Blaine Dr.Chevy Chase, MD 20815http://www.JewishVirtualLibrary.org

Copyright American Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE) Inc., 2017All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form withoutthe written permission of AICE, Inc.ISBN: 1537152726ISBN 13: 9781537152721Printed in the United States of AmericaAmerican Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE)2810 Blaine Dr.Chevy Chase, MD 20815Tel.: 301- 565- 3918Fax: 301- 587- 9 056E- mail: ary.orgOther studies available from AICE (all are now available on our website): Israel Studies: An Anthology Partners for Change: How U.S.- Israel Cooperation Can Benefit America Learning Together: Israeli Innovations in Education That Could Benefit Americans Breakthrough Dividend: Israeli Innovations in Biotechnology That Could BenefitAmericans Experience Counts: Innovative Programs for the Elderly in Israel That Can BenefitAmericans Building Bridges: Lessons for America from Novel Israeli Approaches to PromoteCoexistence Good Medicine: Israeli Innovations in Health Care That Could Benefit Americans Rewriting History in Textbooks On One Foot: A Middle East Guide for the Perplexed or How to Respond on YourWay to Class, When Your Best Friend Joins an Anti- Israel Protest Tenured or Tenuous: Defining the Role of Faculty in Supporting Israel on CampusProduction, new cover art by CreateSpaceOriginal book logo design, cover concept, typography, map illustration: Danakama /Nick Moscovitz / NYC.Additional maps by North Market Street Graphics and the media and public affairsdivision in the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

ContentsPreface .v1 Israel’s Roots .12 The British Mandate Period.133 Partition . 274 The War of 1948 . 355 The 1956 Suez War and the 1967 Six-Day War . 436 The War of Attrition (1967–1970) and the 1973 Yom Kippur War .607 Borders and Boundaries .698 Israel and Lebanon .889 Terrorism .10210 The United Nations .13211 Refugees.14112 Human Rights .17113 Jerusalem .20714 US Middle East Policy .22515 The Peace Process.24516 Settlements . 29017 The Nuclear Issue . 29918 The Media .32319 The Campaign to Delegitimize Israel.344Index of Myths .365Alphabetical Index .373Suggested Reading . 388About the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise .391About the Author .392TABLES1—Jewish Immigrants to Palestine . 162—Palestinian Refugees in UNRWA Camps (January 2016) .1623—Jerusalem’s Population . 2084—Foreign Military Financing (FMF) Orders by State .2365—“Consensus” Settlements .295MAPS1—Great Britain’s Division of the Mandated Area, 1921–1923 . 142—The Balfour Declaration Britain’s Promise to the Jews . 173—The Partition Plan—1947—UN General Assembly Resolution 181 . 28

iv Contents4—Peel Commission Partition Plan, July 1937 . 315—The Arab Invasion, May 15, 1948 . 366—Armistice Lines, 1949.387—Terrorist Attacks, 1951–1956. 448—The Sinai Campaign, 1956 . 449—The Golan Heights Prior to the 1967 War: Distances and Elevations . 4810—Israel before June 1967 . 5011—Events Leading to the Six-Day War, May 25–30, 1967. 5312—The Egyptian Front, June 5–8, 1967 . 5513—The Battle for Jerusalem, June 5–7, 1967 . 5714—Israel after the Six-Day War, June 10, 1967 . 6115—Egyptian and Syrian Attacks, Oct. 6, 1973 . 6516—Peace with Egypt . 7017—The Golan Heights Ridge Line . 7218—Relative Size of the Golan Heights. 7419—Range of Fire from Judea & Samaria (West Bank) . 7720—Israel—PLO Interim Agreements since 1993 . 7821—Flying Times to Israel .8022—2nd Lebanon War .9223—Israel’s Border with Lebanon (in 2000) . 9424—Range of Fire from Lebanon .9625—Jewish Refugees from Arab States, 1948–1972.14226—Divided Jerusalem, 1948–1967.21127—Distances between Israeli Population Centers andPre-1967 Armistice Lines .25028—Range of Fire from Gaza .25229—The Palestinian Authority’s Map of Palestine .26130—Water Resources .26731—The Future Borders of Israel and Palestine? .29732—Israel: Size and Dimensions.346

PrefaceThe great enemy of truth is very often not the lie— deliberate,contrived and dishonest— but the myth— persistent, persuasive and repeated.— President John F. Kennedy*“Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not his ownfacts.”—Daniel Patrick Moynihan†“Th e Isr aeli- Palestin ian con flict has several dimensions— national,political, territorial, cultural and religious,” Israeli journalist Yossi Melman observed. “In the worst case scenarios drawn by Israeli analysts,the most feared and dangerous one is that the religious aspect willtake over and dominate the conflict, thus turning it into a religiouswar, which might draw the billions of Muslims around the globeagainst Israel.”‡Melman has proved prophetic. While there has always been a religious component to the conflict in the Middle East, the conflict wasprimarily between Israel and the Arab states for at least thirty years,hence the subtitle of this book. Today, however, the Arab- Israeli conflict no longer exists. Israel still has peace treaties with only two Arabstates, Egypt and Jordan; however, none of the other states considersthemselves at war with Israel. The Gulf States were never a major factor in the conflict, and for a brief period following the Oslo agreement, ties became more formal. Today, those relations are less overtbut still exist. Israel’s two major Arab antagonists had been SaddamHussein and the Assad family. Hussein, of course, is gone, and Iraq istoo preoccupied with internal issues and threats from its neighborsto pose a threat to Israel. Bashar Assad, meanwhile, is fighting for hisregime, and probably his life, in the Syrian civil war. Even before thedissolution of Syria began, Assad and his father, since being routed inthe 1973 war, effectively kept the border with Israel quiet. The oneborder nation that remains a threat to Israel is Lebanon, but dangercomes from the Hezbollah terrorists— radical Muslims determined to*President John F. Kennedy, Commencement Address at Yale University (June 11,1962).†Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Steven R. Weisman, Ed. Daniel Patrick Moynihan: APortrait in Letters of an American Visionary (PublicAffairs, October 12, 2010), 2.‡Yossi Melman, “A Price Tag for Jewish Terror,” Jerusalem Report (May 6, 2013), 18.

vi Prefaceannihilate the Jews— who dominate the country rather than the virtually nonexistent government and passive army.Israel is now threatened almost exclusively by radical Muslims fromGaza, the West Bank, Lebanon and, especially, Iran. These Muslims, asopposed to most living in the Middle East, are not interested in a political agreement; they seek the elimination of the Jewish state.Meanwhile, Israel’s detractors outside the region are engaged in aglobal campaign to delegitimize Israel with their anti- Semitic boycott,divestment, and sanctions (BDS) campaign. Though often portrayedas a human rights movement to help the Palestinians, it actually sharesthe radical Muslim objective of destroying Israel.Even the Palestinian- Israeli dispute, which has typically been referred to as a fight between two peoples over one land, has become aprimarily religious conflict. The popularity of Hamas influenced theIslamization of the conflict with the Palestinians. Hamas cast itselfas the defender of Muslim land and the group that could liberate Palestine from the Zionist usurpers. Not to be outdone, the supposedlysecular PLO leaders now use Islamic themes and rhetoric to inspireand incite the Palestinian population.Not all Muslims hold extreme views; however, enough believe thata Jewish state cannot exist in the Muslim heartland, and that Jewsshould never rule over Muslims, to ensure the religious conflict continues whether or not negotiations achieve political agreements.People often ask me to name the most prevalent myth about theMiddle East. The answer is the suggestion, in one form or another, thatIsraelis do not want peace.No one craves peace more desperately than Israelis, who have livedthrough seven wars and an ongoing campaign of terror for more thansix decades. Each time a new peace initiative is launched, our hopesare raised that we will not need to publish another edition of Mythsand Facts, which was first printed more than fifty years ago. In themeantime, old myths continue to be recycled and new calumnies invented. These must not be allowed to go unanswered if we are toprogress toward coexistence.We do not pretend that Israel is perfect. Myths and Facts pulls nopunches when it comes to addressing Israel’