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In partnershipReportGood workTitlehereinnovations in Europe:Sub-title here the social contractReimaginingAuthor name May 2021Fabian Wallace-Stephensand Emma MorganteNote: delete this text block alwaysJUNE 2021The front cover is where you place the hero image foryour project, ideally always as a full bleed image. The waythe title is laid out is very dependent on the image, butwhere possible it should stay in a similar position to thislayout. The title colour could also change to white or blue,especially with a dark background colour See the nextspreads for examples.

AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful to our partners theAutodesk Foundation for their support,without which this work would not bepossible. Thanks to all our RSA colleaguesand associates for their support, input andhelp, including Shirin Maani, Alexa Clay,Alan Lockey, Rami Assaf, Tayo Akinyemi,Anthony Painter, Joanna Choukeir, JessWhite and Nat Ortiz. Particular thanks goto Amanda Ibbett and James Morrison forall the fantastic efforts during the reportproduction process. And to Riley Thoroldwho supported us with our innovationmapping research early in the project.We would also like to thank all of thestakeholders who attended our workshopsor participated in interviews for theircontributions. Any errors are our own.Good work innovations in Europe: reimagining the social contract

ContentsPage no.i. About us 21. Executive summary42. Introduction113. Automation and the jobs of the future 144. The rise of insecure work 265. Mapping good work innovations 356. Building a field577. Conclusion 64Good work innovations in Europe: reimagining the social contract1

i About usREALISINGCHANGEWe are the RSA. The royal societyfor arts, manufactures and commerce.We unite people and ideas to resolvethe challenges of our time.2Good work innovations in Europe: reimagining the social contract

We are the RSA. Theroyal society for arts,manufactures andcommerce. We’recommitted to a future that works foreveryone. A future where we can allparticipate in its creation.The RSA has been at the forefront ofsignificant social impact for over 250 years.Our proven change process, rigorousresearch, innovative ideas platforms anddiverse global community of over 30,000problem solvers, deliver solutions forlasting change.We invite you to be part of this change.Join our community. Together, we’llunite people and ideas to resolve thechallenges of our time.Find out more at thersa.orgWe define our ambitions as:Our visionA world where everyoneis able to participate increating a better future.Our purposeUniting people and ideasto resolve the challengesof our time.We areA global community ofproactive problem solvers.About our partnerFrom the greenest buildings tothe cleanest cars, the smartestfactories to the biggest stories,amazing things are created everyday with Autodesk. Over four decadeswe’ve worked together with our customersto transform how things are made. Todayour solutions span countless industries,empowering innovators everywhere tocombine technologies in new ways, unleashtalent, and unlock insights to make the newpossible.Good work innovations in Europe: reimagining the social contract3

SUMMARYEXECUTIVE4Good work innovations in Europe: reimagining the social contract

1ExecutivesummaryThe RSA Future Work Programmeaims to secure good work forall. Together with the AutodeskFoundation, we embarked on aperiod of research to understand whatgood work innovations have emergedin recent years across Europe and SubSaharan Africa. Our aim was to build anonline directory to help raise awarenessof these organisations and support policymaking and social investment. In the firstpart of this report, we detail the keyfindings of a literature review, secondarydata analysis, and horizon scanning exercisethat explore how technology and otherforces are impacting workers. In thesecond part, we provide an overviewof our innovation mapping research,identifying some of the most promisinggood work innovations and potentialpathways to deepen and scale their impact.Automation and the jobsof the futureDebates about the future of work havebeen dominated by attempts to predictthe number of jobs that will be replacedby AI and robots. Our review of theliterature finds that automation risk variesconsiderably across European countriesand regions. Countries in Southern andEastern Europe are more at risk thanparts of Northern and Western Europe.While rural regions are more at risk thanmajor cities. We examine how the labourmarket has changed over the last decadeto access the extent to which automationhas been happening and what new jobsare being created. Several industries thatexperienced growth over the last decadeare resilient to automation. These includeboth hi-tech sectors such as computerprogramming as well as hi-touch sectorssuch as leisure and social care. But thisrelationship is far from clear cut and thereare other forces that are impacting thestructure of European labour markets.Industries such as hospitality and logisticsexperienced strong growth despite beingat high risk of automation, while the fastestshrinking industries were mining andthe extraction of oil and gas, signalling atransition to renewable energy. A greenjobs revolution is also expected to createhundreds of thousands of jobs acrossEurope in the next decade.We find that some regions anddemographic groups face particularly acutechallenges here. Across Europe, there havebeen huge disparities around job creation.While most regions were creating newjobs after the financial crisis, some areaswhich were hit harder by the economicdownturn were not. Particularly those inSouthern European countries and parts ofFrance. Younger workers are consistentlyidentified as most at risk of automationwhile women are missing out on some ofthe best paid hi-tech roles.Set across a backdrop of risingunemployment, Covid-19 could lead to adifferent permutation of these trends. Thepandemic not only looks likely to createjob losses in industries such as tourismand the creative arts that are resilient toautomation but unable to turn a profitwhile adhering to social distancing, thereare also signs that it could acceleratethe pace of technological change. Frome-commerce replacing high street jobs,to remote working reducing the need foroffice cleaners and security guards, andeven robots being deployed in hotels.Remote working could also result in aneconomic rebalancing away from the majorcities that accounted for a disproportionateshare of economic growth prior to thepandemic.Good work innovations in Europe: reimagining the social contract5

Executive summaryThe rise of insecure workIn recent decades, the social contractbetween workers and businesses hasfrayed, as non-standard work has becomemore prevalent in many parts of Europe.While the gig economy has captured thezeitgeist in this respect, it is a relatively newphenomenon and still not captured well inofficial statistics. Survey data from variousstudies suggests that more that whilearound 10 percent of European workershave used online platforms to find tasksranging from delivery to graphic design,less than 2-3 percent use them at least 20hours a week or as their primary source ofincome.Temporary fixed-term contractsare widespread across the region,affecting 14 percent of employees. Theirgrowth has been particularly marked insome European countries like Italy, theNetherlands, Poland and Croatia. The UK,Netherlands, Italy and Finland also havehigh levels ‘on call’ workers or zero hourscontracts. These arrangements may givesome people freedom to work when theywant and the flexibility to fit work aroundcaring or study commitments. But thereis a growing concern that such flexibilityis ‘one-sided’ with employers seeking“to transfer all risk onto the shouldersof workers in ways which make peoplemore insecure and make their lives harderto manage”. Some of these workers lackcertainty about their working hours orhave chronic issues with low or volatileearnings.granted. Self-employed workers havebeen some of the hardest hit during thepandemic due to high levels of employmentin sectors such as construction, thearts and entertainment and hospitality.Government support measures werealso in many cases introduced later forthose employees and were subject togreater conditionality. While the lack ofaccess to sick pay may have contributed toworsening outbreaks in some countries.Some parts of the gig economy appear tohave experienced growth in response tothe pandemic, particularly those relatedto home deliveries. But there are alsosigns that Covid-19 has forced platformsto ‘grow up’ by accelerating conversationsabout increased protections for workers.The recent Uber employment status rulingis just the tip of the iceberg here.Self-employed workers are a diversegroup, also accounting for 14 percent ofthe workforce across Europe. In Greece(30 percent) and Italy (22 percent) thisfigure is much higher. For the majority, selfemployment brings with it greater levels ofjob and life satisfaction. But these workersstill face significant challenges relating totheir economic security and lack importantprotections that workers in conventionalemployment arrangements take for6Good work innovations in Europe: reimagining the social contract

Mapping good work innovationsWe structure our innovation mappingaround three broad themes: lifelonglearning, economic security and workervoice. Across all themes we wereparticularly interested in innovations thataddress diversity and inclusion, openingup good work to people on the marginsof the economy, regardless of age, gender,race, or mental and physical healthconditions. Skills, training and lifelonglearning: programmes which equippeople with the skills they need toweather oncoming technological trendsor help them transition into the jobs ofthe future.Economic security: initiatives thathelp workers, particularly those in thegig economy and other new forms ofemployment, to grow and stabilisetheir incomes, or offer importantprotections such as sick pay.Worker voice and power: new kindsof trade unions, cooperatives, ororganisational forms which give peoplegreater influence over their workingconditions.Alongside desk research, this exerciseinvolved extensive engagement withkey ecosystem players in different globalregions, including more than 30 interviewswith stakeholders across Europe. Wefound close to 200 innovations acrossEurope. Within each theme we aimed tocluster innovations into broad ‘interventionsets’ that use similar approaches to addresssimilar problems. Our hope is that thisstarts to provide a common languagethat innovators, policy makers and socialinvestors can use to spot opportunities fornew ways to support workers.Many grassroots innovators are makinga meaningful contribution to addressingfuture of work challenges. But theseinnovations will also need to shape –and be shaped by – the regulatory andinstitutional landscape of different countriesbefore they can have a lasting impact onpeople’s working lives. As well as providingan overview of our innovation mappingresearch, we illustrate potential pathwaysto systems level impact, highlighting areasfor partnerships between these actors.For example, public employment servicescould partner with innovators to pilot arange of new digital transition services.Figure 1: Skills, training and lifelong learning intervention setsIntervention setDescriptionExamplesOnline learningMassive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and other toolsthat offer learners a flexible, modular approach to upskillingand reskilling.Digitala jag (Sweden),Kokoroe (France)Peer learningnetworksProgrammes where people can connect to support eachother to stay motivated through mentoring and peersupport.Enrol Yourself (UK), MyEducation Club (Bulgaria)TechnologybootcampsProgrammes that teach people digital skills in an acceleratedformat and connect them with employment opportunities.New Austrian Coding School(Austria), Konexio (France)AugmentedlearningAugmented and virtual reality systems that enhance theprovision of both technical and soft skills in the workplace.Gleechi (Sweden),Bodyswaps (UK)Digital credentialsand skills profilesNew approaches to recognise and validate skills, includingthose developed through on-the-job and informal learning.Credly (global), Tendo (UK)Digital careercoachingPlatforms that use new technologies to offer workerspersonalised coaching and labour market information.FutureFit AI (UK), SingularityExperts (Spain)Good work innovations in Europe: reimagining the social contract7

ExecutivesummaryFigure 2: Economic security intervention setsIntervention setDescriptionExamplesIncomesmoothingand cash flowmanagementPlatforms that help workers to manage income volatility,including through access to fairly priced credit and loans.Trezeo (UK), Mansa (France)Financialcapability andwellbeingProducts and services that help people to better understandtheir financial circumstances or provide advice and mentalhealth support for those in problem debt.Tully (UK), Sherpa (UK)Insurance as anemploymentprotectionNew insurance products and collective schemes that protectworkers against risks such as illness and injury.Wemind (France), BreadFunds (Netherlands)UmbrellacooperativesOrganisations that provide independent workers witha hybrid employment status that entitles them tounemployment protections while also providing othersupport services.Smart (Belgium), Lilith(Finland)Fairer gigplatformsTask and job matching platforms that offer workers that areexcluded from the labour market with access to flexibleworking opportunities.Labour Xchange (UK), TheCare Hub (Romania)While governments could work withinnovators to scale access to portablebenefits through institutional andregulatory change. In some instances,this will require considerable effort frominnovators who must essentially ‘hack thesystem’ to scale their impact, by forgingstrategic partnerships with public sectororganisations or