Common CoreState StandardsforEnglish Language Arts&Literacy in History/Social Studies,Science, and Technical Subjects
Common Core State Standards for ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical SubjectsTable of ContentsIntroductionStandards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects K–5College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading3910Reading Standards for Literature K–511Reading Standards for Informational Text K–513Reading Standards: Foundational Skills K–515College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing18Writing Standards K–5192 TABLE OF CONTENTSCollege and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening 22Speaking and Listening Standards K–523College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language25Language Standards K–526Language Progressive Skills, by Grade30Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading K–531Staying on Topic Within a Grade and Across Grades33Standards for English Language Arts 6–1234College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading35Reading Standards for Literature 6–1236Reading Standards for Informational Text 6–1239College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing41Writing Standards 6–1242College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening 48Speaking and Listening Standards 6–1249College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language51Language Standards 6–1252Language Progressive Skills, by Grade56Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading 6–1257Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies,Science, and Technical Subjects59College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading60Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6–1261Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6–1262College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing63Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science,and Technical Subjects 6–1264
Common Core State Standards for ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical SubjectsIntroductionThe Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy inHistory/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (“the Standards”) arethe culmination of an extended, broad-based effort to fulfill the charge issuedby the states to create the next generation of K–12 standards in order to helpensure that all students are college and career ready in literacy no later than theend of high school.The present work, led by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)and the National Governors Association (NGA), builds on the foundation laid bystates in their decades-long work on crafting high-quality education standards.The Standards also draw on the most important international models as wellas research and input from numerous sources, including state departmentsof education, scholars, assessment developers, professional organizations,educators from kindergarten through college, and parents, students, and othermembers of the public. In their design and content, refined through successivedrafts and numerous rounds of feedback, the Standards represent a synthesis ofthe best elements of standards-related work to date and an important advanceover that previous work.As specified by CCSSO and NGA, the Standards are (1) research and evidencebased, (2) aligned with college and work expectations, (3) rigorous, and(4) internationally benchmarked. A particular standard was included in thedocument only when the best available evidence indicated that its mastery wasessential for college and career readiness in a twenty-first-century, globallycompetitive society. The Standards are intended to be a living work: as new andbetter evidence emerges, the Standards will be revised accordingly.3 introductionThe Standards are an extension of a prior initiative led by CCSSO and NGA todevelop College and Career Readiness (CCR) standards in reading, writing,speaking, listening, and language as well as in mathematics. The CCR Reading,Writing, and Speaking and Listening Standards, released in draft form inSeptember 2009, serve, in revised form, as the backbone for the presentdocument. Grade-specific K–12 standards in reading, writing, speaking, listening,and language translate the broad (and, for the earliest grades, seeminglydistant) aims of the CCR standards into age- and attainment-appropriate terms.The Standards set requirements not only for English language arts (ELA)but also for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects.Just as students must learn to read, write, speak, listen, and use languageeffectively in a variety of content areas, so too must the Standards specifythe literacy skills and understandings required for college and careerreadiness in multiple disciplines. Literacy standards for grade 6 and aboveare predicated on teachers of ELA, history/social studies, science, andtechnical subjects using their content area expertise to help students meetthe particular challenges of reading, writing, speaking, listening, and languagein their respective fields. It is important to note that the 6–12 literacystandards in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are notmeant to replace content standards in those areas but rather to supplementthem. States may incorporate these standards into their standards for thosesubjects or adopt them as content area literacy standards.As a natural outgrowth of meeting the charge to define college and careerreadiness, the Standards also lay out a vision of what it means to be a literateperson in the twenty-first century. Indeed, the skills and understandingsstudents are expected to demonstrate have wide applicability outside theclassroom or workplace. Students who meet the Standards readily undertakethe close, attentive reading that is at the heart of understanding and enjoyingcomplex works of literature. They habitually perform the critical readingnecessary to pick carefully through the staggering amount of informationavailable today in print and digitally. They actively seek the wide, deep, andthoughtful engagement with high-quality literary and informational textsthat builds knowledge, enlarges experience, and broadens worldviews.They reflexively demonstrate the cogent reasoning and use of evidencethat is essential to both private deliberation and responsible citizenship in ademocratic republic. In short, students who meet the Standards develop theskills in reading, writing, speaking, and listening that are the foundation for anycreative and purposeful expression in language.June 2, 2010
Common Core State Standards for ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical SubjectsKey Design ConsiderationsCCR and grade-specific standardsResearch and media skills blended into the Standards as a wholeThe CCR standards anchor the document and define general, cross-disciplinaryliteracy expectations that must be met for students to be prepared toenter college and workforce training programs ready to succeed. The K–12grade-specific standards define end-of-year expectations and a cumulativeprogression designed to enable students to meet college and career readinessexpectations no later than the end of high school. The CCR and high school(grades 9–12) standards work in tandem to define the college and careerreadiness line—the former providing broad standards, the latter providingadditional specificity. Hence, both should be considered when developingcollege and career readiness assessments.To be ready for college, workforce training, and life in a technological society,students need the ability to gather, comprehend, evaluate, synthesize, andreport on information and ideas, to conduct original research in order to answerquestions or solve problems, and to analyze and create a high volume andextensive range of print and nonprint texts in media forms old and new. Theneed to conduct research and to produce and consume media is embeddedinto every aspect of today’s curriculum. In like fashion, research and mediaskills and understandings are embedded throughout the Standards rather thantreated in a separate section.Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s gradespecific standards, retain or further develop skills and understandings masteredin preceding grades, and work steadily toward meeting the more generalexpectations described by the CCR standards.Shared responsibility for students’ literacy developmentGrade levels for K–8; grade bands for 9–10 and 11–12The Standards use individual grade levels in kindergarten through grade 8 toprovide useful specificity; the Standards use two-year bands in grades 9–12 toallow schools, districts, and states flexibility in high school course design.A focus on results rather than meansBy emphasizing required achievements, the Standards leave room for teachers,curriculum developers, and states to determine how those goals should bereached and what additional topics should be addressed. Thus, the Standardsdo not mandate such things as a particular writing process or the full range ofmetacognitive strategies that students may need to monitor and direct theirthinking and learning. Teachers are thus free to provide students with whatevertools and knowledge their professional judgment and experience identify asmost helpful for meeting the goals set out in the Standards.4 introductionAn integrated model of literacyAlthough the Standards are divided into Reading, Writing, Speaking andListening, and Language strands for conceptual clarity, the processes ofcommunication are closely connected, as reflected throughout this document.For example, Writing standard 9 requires that students be able to writeabout what they read. Likewise, Speaking and Listening standard 4 sets theexpectation that students will share findings from their research.The Standards insist that instruction in reading, writing, speaking, listening,and language be a shared responsibility within the school. The K–5 standardsinclude expectations for reading, writing, speaking, listening, and languageapplicable to a range of subjects, including but not limited to ELA. The grades6–12 standards are divided into two sections, one for ELA and the other forhistory/social studies, science, and technical subjects. This division reflects theunique, time-honored place of ELA teachers in developing students’ literacyskills while at the same time recognizing that teachers in other areas must havea role in this development as well.Part of the motivation behind the interdisciplinary approach to literacypromulgated by the Standards is extensive research establishing the needfor college and career ready students to be proficient in reading complexinformational text independently in a variety of content areas. Most of therequired reading in college and workforce training programs is informationalin structure and challenging in content; postsecondary education programstypically provide students with both a higher volume of such reading than isgenerally required in K–12 schools and comparatively little scaffolding.The Standards are not alone in calling for a special emphasis on informationaltext. The 2009 reading framework of the National Assessment of EducationalProgress (NAEP) requires a high and increasing proportion of informational texton its assessment as students advance through the grades.
Common Core State Standards for ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical SubjectsDistribution of Literary and Informational Passages by Grade inthe 2009 NAEP Reading FrameworkGradeLiteraryInformationalGradeTo PersuadeTo ExplainTo Convey 0%1240%40%20%Source: National Assessment Governing Board. (2008). Reading framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Source: National Assessment Governing Board. (2007). Writing framework for the 2011 NationalAssessment of Educational Progress, pre-publication edition. Iowa City, IA: ACT, Inc.The Standards aim to align instruction with this framework so that many morestudents than at present can meet the requirements of college and careerreadiness. In K–5, the Standards follow NAEP’s lead in balancing the readingof literature with the reading of informational texts, including texts in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. In accord with NAEP’s growingemphasis on informational texts in the higher grades, the Standards demandthat a significant amount of reading of informational texts take place in andoutside the ELA classroom. Fulfilling the Standards for 6–12 ELA requiresmuch greater attention to a specific category of informational text—literarynonfiction—than has been traditional. Because the ELA classroom must focuson literature (stories, drama, and poetry) as well as literary nonfiction, a greatdeal of informational reading in grades 6–12 must take place in other classes ifthe NAEP assessment framework is to be matched instructionally.1 To measurestudents’ growth toward college and career readiness, assessments aligned withthe Standards should adhere to the distribution of texts across grades cited inthe NAEP framework.It follows that writing assessments aligned with the Standards should adhere tothe distribution of writing purposes across grades outlined by NAEP. introductionNAEP likewise outlines a distribution across the grades of the core purposesand types of student writing. The 2011 NAEP framework, like the Standards,cultivates the development of three mutually reinforcing writing capacities:writing to persuade, to explain, and to convey real or imagined experience.Evidence concerning the demands of college and career readiness gatheredduring development of the Standards concurs with NAEP’s shif