NAMEDATE 29pages 4 Choices: Exploring Parts of SpeechThe following activities challenge you to find a connection between parts of speech and theworld around you. Do the activity below that suits your personality best, and then share yourdiscoveries with your class.BUILDING BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGESTATISTICSPen, Jot, and ScribbleThe Bottom LineWhat are the synonyms for the verb write? Use athesaurus to get started on a list. Include slangwords, jargon, and any other type of synonymthat you can. Then, write a sentence or two identifying the connotations of each word. Forinstance, jot refers to short, quick, informal notes.You could create a handout for your classmates,or you could draw illustrations of a group of synonyms and hang your pictures in the classroom.Statistically speaking, which part of speechappears most often in advertisements, stories,poems, legal contracts, instructions, cookbooks,and other types of writing? Do a survey ofseveral representative passages. Identify andtabulate each part of speech in each passage.Then, compare the passages. A computerspreadsheet could make creating a graphic presentation of your results short work. Be sure toprint out copies for all your classmates. Lead adiscussion to determine why certain parts ofspeech may or may not figure more predominantly in certain types of writings.LINGUISTICSCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.What’s New?In the last hundred years, many words havebeen added to English. Words from science, psychology, art, and technology have become common knowledge. Choose a field and investigateten new words. Find out when they were firstused. (Check the Oxford English Dictionary.)Then, create a time line. The class may be usingyour time line throughout the year, so use largepaper and leave room for additions. Post yourwords, along with their meanings and illustrations, on the time line.HISTORYWho’s WhoThe study of grammar started a long time ago.How long ago? Find out. While you’re at it, findout some of the all-time great names in grammar.Start with Dionysus Thrax. What did he do thatis so important? When you’ve completed yourresearch, write up some short notes and postthem on a time line. You might want to labeleach name as a compound noun.Language and Sentence Skills PracticeCOMPUTER PRESENTATIONTo Learn Something, Teach It.Help younger students understand the parts ofspeech. Create an electronic slide show introducing the parts of speech. You could include illustrations, voice-over, sound effects, and anythingelse that you think would engage youngerstudents. Take your presentation to an elementary or middle school classroom and see whatthey think! Oh, you might also want to write ashort test to check your effectiveness.CREATIVE WRITINGWhat, That, and Who, TooIf Abbott and Costello can make comedy historyby making jokes like their famous “Who’s onFirst?” comedy routine based on the parts ofspeech, why can’t you? Give it a try. Write acomedy dialogue or monologue that is based onpronouns. With your teacher’s permission, present your routine to the class.1GRAMMAR Language in Context: Choicesfor CHAPTER 1: THE PARTS OF SPEECHCLASS

NAMECLASSpage 4Common, Proper, Concrete, and Abstract Nouns1a. A noun names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.COMMON NOUNS scientist, artistPROPER NOUNS Albert Einstein, Jackson PollockCONCRETE NOUNS moon, calendar, broccoli,VietnamABSTRACT NOUNS gentility, meekness, Buddhism, hopeEXERCISE In the following sentences, underline the common nouns once and the proper nouns twice.Above each noun write C if the noun is concrete or A if the noun is abstract.CACExample 1. Beth worked up the courage to eat some of the unfamiliar dish.1. My father believes sunshine can make you smart.2. The cowboys took the horses to the creek just past Razzleberry Hill.3. Jon did not have the strength to close the window.4. I learned to speak Portuguese from my teacher, Dr. Tihonen.5. That’s a good thought, Jacob, but I don’t have any plastic bags.6. From the house, you can see both the waterfall and the stream.7. It’s not about how you hit the baseball; it’s about your mental attitude.8. The province finally won its independence.9. It takes patience to learn the guitar.10. Farley, Jack, and I paddled our canoes down the Colorado River.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.GRAMMARfor CHAPTER 1: THE PARTS OF SPEECHDATE11. Moving to Pittsburgh caused me a lot of heartache.12. Why don’t you take off your shoes and rest your feet, Lucy?13. That student has great ambition.14. Our homework is due tomorrow.15. My brother is a surgeon in Houston.16. Robby is an excellent saxophone player.17. I wish everyone could enjoy the love of a loyal pet.18. Paul thought the play was about forgiveness.19. The hippopotamus rested in the cool water.20. Let’s not listen to that CD right now.2HOLT HANDBOOKSixth Course

NAMECLASSGRAMMARfor CHAPTER 1: THE PARTS OF SPEECHDATEpage 5Collective and Compound NounsThe singular form of a collective noun names a group. A compound noun consists of two ormore words used together as one noun. The parts of a compound noun may be written as oneword, as separate words, or as a hyphenated word.COLLECTIVE NOUNS organization, herd, choir, teamCOMPOUND NOUNS highway, high school, son-in-lawEXERCISE In the following sentences, underline the collective nouns once and the compoundnouns twice.Example 1. Our class took a field trip last week.1. On our way to the Museum of Fine Arts, the bus began to overheat.2. Our bus driver, Mr. Peterson, said we had to pull over to the wayside.3. One group of students wandered down to see the pond.4. There was a mother duck with a brood of ducklings.5. “Look,” I said, “a fleet of ducks!”6. “Silly!” said Lynn. “It’s called a flock of ducks.”7. “But they float around like ships,” I said. “Maybe we should call them a crew.”8. A few people from the class fed the flock with bread from our lunchboxes.9. Lynn got too close to the waterside and almost fell in.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.10. Some of our classmates walked to the other side of the lake.11. A group of boys began throwing a football.12. Some students in the choir decided to practice a song.13. I’m not in the choir; I’m in the band.14. The teacher used a cell phone to call the school.15. After the radiator was fixed, the crowd got back on the bus.16. When I bent down to retie my shoelace, I noticed a baby duck under the seat.17. We coaxed the bird back to the duck pond, where its family was waiting.18. As we drove off, the entire class waved goodbye to the flock through the rear window.19. I was happy that our group was finally on its way to the museum.20. However, when we got there, there was a sign on the museum door: “Museum closed dueto floodwater.”Language and Sentence Skills Practice3

NAMECLASSpage 7Pronouns and Antecedents1b. A pronoun takes the place of one or more nouns or pronouns.The word that a pronoun stands for is the antecedent of the pronoun.EXAMPLES Ruth decorated the room herself. [The noun Ruth is the antecedent of herself.]The teacher wrote his name on the board. [The noun teacher is the antecedent of his.]EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline each pronoun once and its antecedent twice.Example1. Phillip and Laura live in the town where they both grew up.1. Uncle Andrew is in this picture; he is on the far left.2. When Clara was a little girl, she wanted to be an artist.3. The dishes are in the dishwasher because they are dirty.4. Mary drove here herself.5. Clifford will have to hurry; he is late.6. Where is the screwdriver? It was here a minute ago.7. Tell George the blue umbrella is for him.8. Tori is leaving. Will Ed go with her?9. Andrea had something in her eye.10. The sign was so small it could not be seen from the road.11. Dad went with him when Sven took the driving test.12. Tom built the shed himself.13. Seth said, “I intend to be president of the class.”14. The students painted the mural themselves.15. The clock needs to be wound because it has stopped.16. As they entered the pep rally, Carl and Christopher announced loudly, “The wrestling teamhas arrived!”17. Louie and Rachel are tired of their toys.18. Ms. Young told Jamie, “You were the student voted most likely to succeed.”19. Is Sergio at his job?20. The factory workers and the managers are happy they get along so well.4HOLT HANDBOOKSixth CourseCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.GRAMMARfor CHAPTER 1: THE PARTS OF SPEECHDATE

NAMECLASSGRAMMARfor CHAPTER 1: THE PARTS OF SPEECHDATE 9pages 8 Personal, Reflexive, and Intensive PronounsA personal pronoun refers to the one(s) speaking (first person), the one(s) spoken to (secondperson), or the one(s) spoken about (third person).A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of a verb and functions as a complement or as theobject of a preposition.An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent—a noun or another pronoun.EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline each pronoun. Then, identify each pronoun by writingabove it P for personal, I for intensive, or R for reflexive.PIPRExample 1. He said himself that we should be kind to ourselves.1. They rode the train west for as far as it would carry them.2. We thought this house was hers.3. He convinced himself to finish the chores.4. They themselves made the waffles.5. I found her house all by myself.6. Our greatest challenge is ahead of us.7. His sister went with him to find your dog.8. I wrote myself a note about their party.9. You could paint the room yourself.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.10. She is my favorite designer.11. The puppy chased its tail until it tired itself out.12. Her grandparents live next door to you, don’t they?13. You may help yourself to the buffet.14. It was so cold that we could see our breath.15. She fixed the leaking faucet herself.16. The scientists themselves could not figure out the problem.17. You and your friends should join us.18. We are not planning to see the movie ourselves.19. If she said we would not finish the race, then she does not know us well.20. Monica herself was there to meet us when we dragged ourselves off the plane after the longestflight of our lives.Language and Sentence Skills Practice5

NAMECLASSpage 9Demonstrative, Interrogative, and Relative PronounsA demonstrative pronoun points out a noun or another pronoun.An interrogative pronoun introduces a question.A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause.DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS this, that, these, thoseINTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS who, whom, which, what, whoseRELATIVE PRONOUNS that, which, who, whom, whoseEXERCISE In the following sentences, underline demonstrative, interrogative, and relative pronouns.Then, above each underlined pronoun, write D for demonstrative, I for interrogative, or R for relative.IExample 1. “Who stole the diamond-covered shoehorn?” asked the great detective.1. “We must discover the culprit who is guilty of this crime.”2. “The shoehorn was last seen near a window, which has been broken.”3. “Which is the window that was broken?” asked Ann, the housekeeper.4. “This must be the one,” said Harold, the butler.5. Harold pointed to a window, which had been shattered.6. “What are the marks on the ground outside the window?” asked Ann.7. “Those are footprints,” replied the great detective.8. “They belong to someone whose boots are very large.”9. “Who has boots as big as the footprints?” asked Ann, looking at the butler’s feet.10. “What are you implying?” demanded the butler.11. “The thief must have large feet. That’s all,” said Ann, looking down at her small shoes.12. “These are certainly the footprints of the thief,” said the great detective.13. “However, those were not necessarily the boots of the thief.”14. “What do you mean?” they both asked.15. “There is one thing that you are forgetting,” said the great detective. “Small feet can fit intolarge boots, too.”16. “That is silly,” said Ann.17. “Why would someone who had small feet wear large boots?”18. “What could be a better way of disguising your footprints than using someone else’s shoes?”19. “That is right,” said the butler. “A pair of my boots is missing.”20. “This is the thief!” cried the great detective, pointing at Ann, the small-footed housekeeper.6HOLT HANDBOOKSixth CourseCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.GRAMMARfor CHAPTER 1: THE PARTS OF SPEECHDATE

NAMECLASSGRAMMARfor CHAPTER 1: THE PARTS OF SPEECHDATEpage 10Indefinite PronounsAn indefinite pronoun refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not bespecifically named.INDEFINITE PRONOUNS all, another, anyone, both, each, everyone, everybody, everything, few, many,neither, nothing, several, suchEXERCISE A Underline the indefinite pronouns in the following sentences.Example 1. Today, most of us use flatware to eat.1. However, in the not-too-distant past, eating with one’s fingers was nothing unusual.2. Etiquette dictated that anyone considered “high-class” should use only three fingers to pick upa morsel, leaving out the pinky and ring finger.3. Someone might, in fact, be mocked for using a utensil rather than just his or her hands.4. Few know that the fork is a rather recent invention; it was first used for eating in eleventhcentury Tuscany, which today is part of Italy.5. The new utensil spread to other parts of Europe, though it was considered by most to be morea curiosity than a useful tool.6. Many at the time considered the use of the fork to be strange and even ungodly.7. It was not until the eighteenth century that the French nobility began to believe it was impoliteCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.for one to use fingers at the table.8. Consequently, most started using forks.9. The spoon and knife predate the fork, as anyone who studies culinary history could explain.10. Of the early spoons that have been found, most were ma