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A Pathway toEquitableMath InstructionDismantlingRacism inMathematicsInstructionExercises for educators to reflecton their own biases to transformtheir instructional practice1STRIDEMAY 2021

Dismantling Racismin MathematicsInstructionThis tool provides teachers an opportunity to examinetheir actions, beliefs, and values around teaching mathematics. The framework for deconstructing racism inmathematics offers essential characteristics of antiracistmath educators and critical approaches to dismantlingwhite supremacy in math classrooms by making visible the toxic characteristics of white supremacy culture(Jones and Okun 2001; dismantling Racism 2016) withrespect to math. Building on the framework, teachersengage with critical praxis in order to shift their instructional beliefs and practices towards antiracist math education. By centering antiracism, we model how to beantiracist math educators with accountability.STRIDE1THEMESTeacher BeliefsGUIDING PRINCIPLESCulturally relevant curricula andpractices designed to increaseaccess for students of color.Promoting antiracistmathematics instruction.CONTENT DEVELOPERSSonia Michelle CintronMath Content SpecialistUnboundEdDani WadlingtonDirector of Mathematics EducationQuetzal Education ConsultingAndre ChenFengHOW TO USE THIS TOOLWhile primarily for math educators, this text advocates for acollective approach to dismantlingwhite supremacy. This schoolwide approach ensures that antiracist work is not left alone to oneindividual (i.e., math teacher or thedirector of equity), but to enlist thesupport and voice of all stakeholders in the school ecosystem. Teachers should use this workbook to self-reflect on individualpractices in the classroom andidentify next steps in their antiracist journey as a math educator. Leaders and coaches should usethe framework during observations and walkthroughs, annotating the behaviors and providingtargeted feedback. Administrators should examineprograms and policies and howwhite supremacy impacts studentoutcomes (e.g., tracking, courseselection, intervention rosters). Inaddition, they can hold teachersaccountable for completing theactivities in this workbook.1Ph.D. StudentEducation at Claremont GraduateUniversityFEEDBACK ADVISORSKyndall BrownExecutive DirectorCalifornia Mathematics ProjectDenise GreenEducational Administrator, MathematicsMonterey County Office of EducationManuel BuenrostroPolicy AssociateCalifornians TogetherAna BenderasDirector of Humanities EducationQuetzal Education Consulting

A Pathway to Equitable Math InstructionSTRIDE 1 : Dismantling Racism in Mathematics Instruction2

A Pathway to Equitable Math InstructionSTRIDE 1 : Dismantling Racism in Mathematics InstructionTable of ContentsLETTER TO READER4DECONSTRUCTING RACISM IN MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTION6Dismantling White Supremacy In Math ClassroomsCharacteristics Of Antiracist Math EducatorsCRITICAL PRAXIS10Shifting Toward Antiracist Math EducationCALENDAR11PROCESS11BEFORE THE SCHOOL YEAR12What Are My Expectations For The Year?SEPTEMBER15Who Are My Students?OCTOBER22What Am I Teaching?NOVEMBER29How Am I Authentically Including Black, Latinx, and Multilingual Students?DECEMBER36How Did I Learn Math?JANUARY43How Do I Teach Math?FEBRUARY50How Do I Track What Students Know?MARCH57How Do I Engage Students In Learning?APRIL64How Can I Facilitate Deeper Understanding?MAY71How Do I Dismantle Power Structures In The Classroom?END OF THE SCHOOL YEAR78What Are My Expectations For Next Year?REFERENCES813

A Pathway to Equitable Math InstructionSTRIDE 1 : Dismantling Racism in Mathematics InstructionLetter to ReaderThis workbook provides teachers an opportunity to examine their actions,beliefs, and values around teaching mathematics. The framework fordeconstructing racism in mathematics offers essential characteristics ofantiracist math educators and critical approaches to dismantling whitesupremacy in math classrooms by making visible the toxic characteristics ofwhite supremacy culture (Jones and Okun 2001; dismantlingRacism 2016)with respect to math. Building on the framework, teachers engage with criticalpraxis1 in order to shift their instructional beliefs and practices toward antiracistmath education. By centering antiracism, we model how to be antiracist matheducators with accountability.CO N S I D ER ATIO NS F O R USEWhile primarily for math educators, this text advocates for a collective approach to dismantling white supremacy. Thisschool-wide approach ensures that antiracist work is not left alone to one individual (i.e., math teacher or the directorof equity), but to enlist the support and voice of all stakeholders in the school ecosystem. Teachers should use this workbook to self-reflect on individual practices in the classroom andidentify next steps in their antiracist journey as a math educator. Leaders and coaches should use the framework during observations and walkthroughs, annotatingthe behaviors and providing targeted feedback. Administrators should examine programs and policies and how white supremacy impacts studentoutcomes (e.g., tracking, course selection, intervention rosters). In addition, they can hold teachersaccountable for completing the activities in this workbook.1C ritical praxis: “Ernest Morrell and Jeff Duncan-Andrade acknowledge thatcritical praxis in the classroom involves a continuous, self-reflective cyclebetween theory and action as follows: (a) identifying a problem, (b) researchingthe problem, (c) developing a collective plan of action to address that problem,(d) implementing the collective plan of action, and (e) evaluating the action andassessing its efficacy in reexamining the state of the problem. Thus, criticalpraxis involves a constant path of evaluating thought with action, theory withpractice, in the effort to gain a higher consciousness for positive change uponthe world.” (McLaren, Ryoo, Crawford, & Moreno, 2010, p. 151).4

A Pathway to Equitable Math InstructionSTRIDE 1 : Dismantling Racism in Mathematics InstructionWhite supremacy culture is the idea (ideology) that White people andthe ideas, thoughts, beliefs, and actions of white people are superiorto People of Color and their ideas, thoughts, beliefs, and actions. [from Sharon Martinas and the Challenging White Supremacy Workshop]Culture is powerful precisely because it is so present and at the same time sovery difficult to name or identify. The characteristics of white supremacy cultureare damaging because they are used as norms and standards without beingpro-actively named or chosen by the group. They are damaging to both peopleof color and to white people. Organizations that are people of color-led or amajority people of color can also demonstrate many damaging characteristicsof white supremacy culture. (Jones and Okun 2001)NOTE S ON TE R M SThe terms used in the engagement section of this resource are ideas presented in the dismantlingRacism workbook(2016) notebook, grounded on the work of Jones and Okun (2001). It is important to read this article first to fullyunderstand the terms that are identified as characteristics of white supremacy culture in organizations. We contextualize these ideas into the math classroom to make visible how white supremacy culture plays out in these spaces.As a visual indicator, we italicize the terms used to identify white supremacy characteristics asdefined by Jones and Okun (2001). They are as follows: Perfectionism Sense of Urgency Defensiveness Quantity Over Quality Worship of the Written Word Paternalism Either/Or Thinking Power Hoarding Fear of Open Conflict Individualism Only One Right Way Progress is Bigger, More Objectivity Right to Comfort5

A Pathway to Equitable Math InstructionSTRIDE 1 : Dismantling Racism in Mathematics Instruction“We live in a toxic culture thataffects us all; one dynamicof the culture is that we arediscouraged from seeing it. Oneof our tasks is to learn to see ourculture and how it teaches us tomake normal that which is notand should never be normal.”(dismantlingRacism 2016)6

A Pathway to Equitable Math InstructionSTRIDE 1 : Dismantling Racism in Mathematics InstructionDeconstructing Racism inMathematics InstructionWhite supremacy culture infiltrates math classrooms in everyday teacher actions. Coupled with the beliefs that underliethese actions, they perpetuate educational harm on Black, Latinx, and multilingual students, denying them full access tothe world of mathematics.The table below identifies the ways in which white supremacy shows up in math classrooms.D I S MAN TL ING W HIT E SUPR EM AC Y CU LTU RE I N M ATH CL A S S RO O M SWe see white supremacy culture show up in the mathematics classroom even as we carry out our professionalresponsibilities outlined in the California Standards for the Teaching Profession (CSTP). Using CSTPas aframework, we see white supremacy culture in the mathematics classroom can show up when:ENGAGING ANDSUPPORTINGALL STUDENTSIN LEARNING(CSTP 1)CREATING ANDMAINTAININGEFFECTIVEENVIRONMENTS FORSTUDENT LEARNING(CSTP 2)UNDERSTANDINGAND ORGANIZINGSUBJECT MATTERFOR STUDENTLEARNING(CSTP 3)PLANNINGINSTRUCTION ANDDESIGNING LEARNINGEXPERIENCES FORALL STUDENTS(CSTP 4)ASSESSINGSTUDENTS FORLEARNING(CSTP 5) There is a greater focus on getting the "right" answer than understandingconcepts and reasoning. Independent practice is valued over teamwork or collaboration. Contrived word problems are valued over the math in students' lived experiences. Students are tracked (into courses/pathways and within the classroom). Participation structures reinforce dominant ways of being. Curriculum developers and teachers enculturated in the USA teach mathematicsthe way they learned it without critical reflection. Preconceived expectations are steeped in the dominant culture. Mistakes are addressed as failure rather than as opportunities to learn. Control of classrooms is valued over student's agnecy over their learning. Math is taught in a linear fashion and skills are taught sequentially,without consideration of prerequisite knowledge. Superficial curriculum changes are offered in place of culturallyrelevant pedagogy and practice. Only content standards guide learning in the classroom. Procedural fluency is preferred over conceptual knowledge. “Good” math teaching is considered an antidote for mathematical inequityfor Black, Latinx, and multilingual students. Rigor is expressed only in difficulty. “I do, we do, you do” is the primary format of the class. Students are required to “show their work” in standardized, prescribed ways. Grading practices that center what sutdents don't understand rather thanwhat they do. Language acquisition is equated with mathematical proficiency.7

A Pathway to Equitable Math InstructionSTRIDE 1 : Dismantling Racism in Mathematics InstructionThese common practices that perpetuate white supremacyculture create and sustain institutional and systemic barriersto equity for Black, Latinx, and Multilingual students. In orderto dismantle these barriers, we must identify what it means tobe an antiracist math educator.In order to embody antiracist math education, teachersmust engage in critical praxis that interrogates the waysin which they perpetuate white supremacy culture in theirown classrooms, and develop a plan toward antiracist matheducation to address issues of equity for Black, Latinx, andmultilingual students.“The only way to undo racism is toconsistently identify and describeit—and then dismantle it.” (Kendi 2019)8

A Pathway to Equitable Math InstructionSTRIDE 1 : Dismantling Racism in Mathematics InstructionC H A R AC TER IST IC S O F A NT IR AC I S T M ATH E D U CATO RSAntiracist math educators deconstruct the ways they have beentaught math to learn and teach math differently.2Design a Culturally Sustaining Math SpaceCenter Ethnomathematics3Make Rigor Accessible Through Strong and Thoughtful ScaffoldingPrepare Students of Color to Close The Gap in Access to STEM FieldsEmbrace and Encourage Multiple and Varying Ways of Sharing,Showing, and Communicating KnowledgeSupport Students to Reclaim their Mathematical AncestryDESIGN A CULTURALLY SUSTAINING MATH SPACE Use culturally relevant, antiracist pedagogy, practices, and curriculum. Cultivate mathematical identity so that everyone can see themselves as mathematicians. Design homework policies that are responsive to the lives of students of color in order to support their learning needs. Recognize and name the mathematical strengths of students of color, and teach themto recognize these strengths in themselves and others. Intentionally integrate physical movement in math classes.CENTER ETHNOMATHEMATICS Recognize the ways that communities of color engage in mathematics and problem solving in their everyday lives. Teach that mathematics can help solve problems affecting students’ communities. Model the use of math as asolution to their immediate problems, needs, or desires. Identify and challenge the ways that math is used to uphold capitalist, imperialist, and racist views. Teach the value of math as both an abstract concept and as a useful everyday tool. Expose students to examples of people who have used math as resistance. Provide learning opportunities that usemath as resistance.2“ Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy views schools as places where the cultural ways ofbeing in communities of color are sustained, rather than eradicated. CulturallySustaining Pedagogy promotes equality across racial and ethnic communitiesand seeks to ensure access and opportunity. Culturally Sustaining Pedagogyalso supports students to critique and question dominant power structures insocieties.” ped.asp)3“ The term ethnomathematics is used to express the relationship between cultureand mathematics. The term requires a dynamic interpretation because it describesconcepts that are themselves neither rigid nor singul