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common core state STANDARDS FOREnglish Language Arts&Literacy inHistory/Social Studies,Science, and Technical SubjectsAppendix B: Text Exemplars andSample Performance Tasks

Common Core State Standards for english language arts & literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjectsExemplars of Reading Text Complexity, Quality, and Range& Sample Performance Tasks Related to Core StandardsSelecting Text ExemplarsThe following text samples primarily serve to exemplify the level of complexity and quality that the Standards requireall students in a given grade band to engage with. Additionally, they are suggestive of the breadth of texts that students should encounter in the text types required by the Standards. The choices should serve as useful guideposts inhelping educators select texts of similar complexity, quality, and range for their own classrooms. They expressly donot represent a partial or complete reading list.The process of text selection was guided by the following criteria: Complexity. Appendix A describes in detail a three-part model of measuring text complexity based on qualitative and quantitative indices of inherent text difficulty balanced with educators’ professional judgment inmatching readers and texts in light of particular tasks. In selecting texts to serve as exemplars, the work groupbegan by soliciting contributions from teachers, educational leaders, and researchers who have experienceworking with students in the grades for which the texts have been selected. These contributors were asked torecommend texts that they or their colleagues have used successfully with students in a given grade band. Thework group made final selections based in part on whether qualitative and quantitative measures indicatedthat the recommended texts were of sufficient complexity for the grade band. For those types of texts—particularly poetry and multimedia sources—for which these measures are not as well suited, professional judgment necessarily played a greater role in selection. Quality. While it is possible to have high-complexity texts of low inherent quality, the work group solicited onlytexts of recognized value. From the pool of submissions gathered from outside contributors, the work groupselected classic or historically significant texts as well as contemporary works of comparable literary merit,cultural significance, and rich content. Range. After identifying texts of appropriate complexity and quality, the work group applied other criteria toensure that the samples presented in each band represented as broad a range of sufficiently complex, highquality texts as possible. Among the factors considered were initial publication date, authorship, and subjectmatter.Copyright and PermissionsFor those exemplar texts not in the public domain, we secured permissions and in some cases employed a conservative interpretation of Fair Use, which allows limited, partial use of copyrighted text for a nonprofit educationalpurpose as long as that purpose does not impair the rights holder’s ability to seek a fair return for his or her work.In instances where we could not employ Fair Use and have been unable to secure permission, we have listed a titlewithout providing an excerpt. Thus, some short texts are not excerpted here, as even short passages from them wouldconstitute a substantial portion of the entire work. In addition, illustrations and other graphics in texts are generallynot reproduced here. Such visual elements are particularly important in texts for the youngest students and in manyinformational texts for readers of all ages. (Using the qualitative criteria outlined in Appendix A, the work group considered the importance and complexity of graphical elements when placing texts in bands.)When excerpts appear, they serve only as stand-ins for the full text. The Standards require that students engage withappropriately complex literary and informational works; such complexity is best found in whole texts rather than passages from such texts.Please note that these texts are included solely as exemplars in support of the Standards. Any additional use of thosetexts that are not in the public domain, such as for classroom use or curriculum development, requires independentpermission from the rights holders. The texts may not be copied or distributed in any way other than as part of theoverall Common Core State Standards Initiative documents.Sample Performance Tasksappendix B The text exemplars are supplemented by brief performance tasks that further clarify the meaning of the Standards.These sample tasks illustrate specifically the application of the Standards to texts of sufficient complexity, quality,and range. Relevant Reading standards are noted in brackets following each task, and the words in italics in the taskreflect the wording of the Reading standard itself. (Individual grade-specific Reading standards are identified by theirstrand, grade, and number, so that RI.4.3, for example, stands for Reading, Informational Text, grade 4, standard 3.)2

Common Core State Standards for english language arts & literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjectsHow to Read This DocumentThe materials that follow are divided into text complexity grade bands as defined by the Standards: K–1, 2–3, 4–5, 6–8,9–10, and 11–CCR. Each band’s exemplars are divided into text types matching those required in the Standards fora given grade. K–5 exemplars are separated into stories, poetry, and informational texts (as well as read-aloud textsin kindergarten through grade 3). The 6–CCR exemplars are divided into English language arts (ELA), history/socialstudies, and science, mathematics, and technical subjects, with the ELA texts further subdivided into stories, drama,poetry, and informational texts. (The history/social studies texts also include some arts-related texts.) Citations introduce each excerpt, and additional citations are included for texts not excerpted in the appendix. Within each gradeband and after each text type, sample performance tasks are included for select texts.Media TextsSelected excerpts are accompanied by annotated links to related media texts freely available online at the time of thepublication of this document.appendix B 3

Common Core State Standards for english language arts & literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjectsTable of ContentsK–1 Text Exemplars.14Stories.14Minarik, Else Holmelund. Little Bear. 14Eastman, P. D. Are You My Mother?. 15Seuss, Dr. Green Eggs and Ham. 15Lopshire, Robert. Put Me in the Zoo. 15Lobel, Arnold. Frog and Toad Together . 15Lobel, Arnold. Owl at Home. 16DePaola, Tomie. Pancakes for Breakfast. 17Arnold, Tedd. Hi! Fly Guy. 17Poetry. 17Anonymous. “As I Was Going to St. Ives.”. 17Rossetti, Christina. “Mix a Pancake.” . . 17Fyleman, Rose. “Singing-Time.” . 18Milne, A. A. “Halfway Down.”. 18Chute, Marchette. “Drinking Fountain.”. 18Hughes, Langston. “Poem.”. 18Ciardi, John. “Wouldn’t You?”. 18Wright, Richard. “Laughing Boy.”. 18Greenfield, Eloise. “By Myself.”. 18Giovanni, Nikki. “Covers.”. 18Merriam, Eve. “It Fell in the City.”. 19Lopez, Alonzo. “Celebration.”. 19Agee, Jon. “Two Tree Toads.”. 19Read-Aloud Stories.20Baum, L. Frank. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.20Wilder, Laura Ingalls. Little House in the Big Woods.20Atwater, Richard and Florence. Mr. Popper’s Penguins. 21Jansson, Tove. Finn Family Moomintroll. 21Haley, Gail E. A Story, A Story. 21Bang, Molly. The Paper Crane. 22Young, Ed. Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China. 23Garza, Carmen Lomas. Family Pictures. 23Mora, Pat. Tomás and the Library Lady. 23Henkes, Kevin. Kitten’s First Full Moon. 24Read-Aloud Poetry. 25Anonymous. “The Fox’s Foray.”. 25Langstaff, John. Over in the Meadow. 26Lear, Edward. “The Owl and the Pussycat.”. 27Moss, Lloyd. Zin! Zin! Zin! a Violin. 27appendix B Hughes, Langston. “April Rain Song.”. 274

Common Core State Standards for english language arts & literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjectsSample Performance Tasks for Stories and Poetry. 28Informational Texts . 28Bulla, Clyde Robert. A Tree Is a Plant. 28Aliki. My Five Senses. 29Hurd, Edith Thacher. Starfish.30Aliki. A Weed is a Flower: The Life of George Washington Carver.30Crews, Donald. Truck.30Hoban, Tana. I Read Signs.30Reid, Mary Ebeltoft. Let’s Find Out About Ice Cream. 31“Garden Helpers.” National Geographic Young Explorers. 31“Wind Power.” National Geographic Young Explorers. 31Read-Aloud Informational Texts. 31Provensen, Alice and Martin. The Year at Maple Hill Farm. 31Gibbons, Gail. Fire! Fire!. 31Dorros, Arthur. Follow the Water from Brook to Ocean. 32Rauzon, Mark, and Cynthia Overbeck Bix. Water, Water Everywhere. 33Llewellyn, Claire. Earthworms. 33Jenkins, Steve, and Robin Page. What Do You Do With a Tail Like This?. 33Pfeffer, Wendy. From Seed to Pumpkin. 33Thomson, Sarah L. Amazing Whales!. 34Hodgkins, Fran, and True Kelley. How People Learned to Fly. 34Sample Performance Tasks for Informational Texts. 36Grades 2–3 Text Exemplars. 37Stories. 37Gan