Technical Manual for theTeaching Strategies GOLD Assessment (2nd Edition)Birth Through Third GradeOctober 2020Prepared for Teaching Strategiesby Richard G. Lambert, Ph.D.Center for Educational Measurement and EvaluationUniversity of North Carolina Charlotte
Suggested citation:Lambert, R. (2020). Technical manual for the Teaching Strategies GOLD assessment(second edition): Birth through third grade. Center for Educational Measurement andEvaluation, University of North Carolina Charlotte. 2020 Teaching Strategies, LLC. All rights reserved.
Technical Manual for theTeaching Strategies GOLD Assessment(2nd Edition)Birth Through Third GradeRichard G. Lambert, Ph.D.Center for Educational Measurement and Evaluation UNC CharlotteOctober, 2020
2GOLD Technical Manual 2020Table of ContentsPurpose of the New Technical Manual. 4The Design of GOLD .5The Purpose of GOLD .7GOLD Is a Formative Assessment. 8GOLD Is a Developmental Assessment. 8GOLD Is an Authentic Assessment. 9GOLD Is a Criterion-Referenced Assessment.10Using the Scores Provided by the GOLD Assessment System.10Raw Scores.10Widely Held Expectations Scores.10Scaled Scores. 11National Norm Scores.12Guidelines for Aggregated Reporting.12About Missing Data.13The Current Study. 14National Sample. 14Analyses Related to the Construction of Scaled Scores. 16Dimensionality. 16Rating Scale Category Effectiveness.19Item Difficulty Measures. 21Reliability. 23Summary. 26References. 28
3GOLD Technical Manual 2020Tables. 30Table 1. Norm sample by age/grade. 30Table 2. Demographic characteristics. 30Table 3. Reliability coefficients for all scales. 31Table 4. Fall item-level statistics and difficulty estimates for the social-emotional scale.32Table 5. Fall item-level statistics and difficulty estimates for the physical scale.32Table 6. Fall item-level statistics and difficulty estimates for the language scale.33Table 7. Fall item-level statistics and difficulty estimates for the cognitive scale.33Table 8. Fall item-level statistics and difficulty estimates for the literacy scale. 34Table 9. Fall item-level statistics and difficulty estimates for the mathematics scale. 34Table 10. Social-emotional scaled scores by age/grade.35Table 11. Physical scaled scores by age/grade.36Table 12. Language scaled scores by age/grade.37Table 13. Cognitive scaled scores by age/grade. 38Table 14. Literacy scaled sores by age/grade.39Table 15. Mathematics scaled scores by age/grade. 40Table 16. Widely held expectations for social-emotional by age/grade. 41Table 17. Widely held expectations for physical by age/grade.42Table 18. Widely held expectations for language by age/grade. 43Table 19. Widely held expectations for cognitive by age/grade. 44Table 20. Widely held expectations for literacy by age/grade.45Table 21. Widely held expectations for mathematics by age/grade. 46Glossary.47
4GOLD Technical Manual 2020Purpose of the New Technical ManualTeaching Strategies GOLD is a formative assessment intended to assess the wholechild from birth through third grade. It enables teachers to collect documentationon an ongoing basis to identify the best placements for individual children acrossa series of developmental progressions. In contrast to direct assessments, teacherscollect evidence during regular activities in natural classroom contexts. Assessment,thus, unfolds as teachers compile portfolios of evidence for each child, reflect uponand analyze the evidence, make preliminary ratings on a rolling basis, and finalizeratings at specified points during the year. Teachers and administrators may thenuse this information to inform instruction and to facilitate communication withparents and other stakeholders. The primary intent of GOLD is to help teachersobserve and understand child progress, plan instruction, and support child growthand development. Moreover, unlike direct assessment, the process gives youngchildren agency by directly involving them in meaningful interactions that signaldevelopmental progress.It is important to provide teachers with formative assessments that yield reliable,valid, and culturally sensitive information about children. Reliability and validityare not inherent qualities of an assessment but rather are properties of theinformation an assessment provides under particular conditions of use. Hence, themeasurement properties of any assessment should be rigorously examined as long asit is in use, and this examination must extend to all subgroups of children and allconditions of use. Previous studies of GOLD have demonstrated its reliability andvalidity overall and for multiple subgroups of interest. For a thorough review, seeLambert, Kim, & Burts, 2013; Lambert, Kim, & Burts, 2014; Lambert, Kim, &Burts, 2015; and the third technical manual for the original edition (birth throughkindergarten) of GOLD .This is the second technical manual for the birth through third grade (B–3) editionof GOLD ; the first was released in 2017 alongside the B–3 edition. While nothingabout the assessment has changed, the aims of the current manual are to:1. Reaffirm the reliability and validity of GOLD on a wider range of data collectedby more experienced users. With these improvements to the sample, the currentmanual allows for deeper understanding of the assessment’s functionality.2. Provide updated norms, including an expansion into first grade.3. Outline the improved approach to imputing missing data.
5GOLD Technical Manual 2020The Design of GOLD Taking a whole-child approach, GOLD assesses children’s development andlearning across four developmental domains (social–emotional, physical, language,cognitive) and five content domains (literacy, mathematics, science and technology,social studies, and the arts). It also includes a tenth domain, English languageacquisition, for use with dual-language learners (DLLs). Each domain comprises aset of objectives designed to guide teachers through the assessment process. Manyobjectives are further broken down into one or more dimensions. GOLD hasthirty-eight objectives in total, collectively termed the Objectives for Developmentand Learning (ODL). Figure 1 illustrates the organization of the ODL for thephysical domain as an example.Figure 1. ODL for the Physical DomainIn addition, each dimension under the first six domains (social–emotional, physical,language, cognitive, literacy, and mathematics) has a progression associated with it.Every progression represents a continuum that enables teachers to relate observablebehavior to expectations for a child’s age/grade. Progressions help teachers and otherstakeholders understand how children are performing relative to developmentallyappropriate expectations. Figure 2 illustrates an example of the progression forObjective 4 under the physical domain.
6Figure 2. Progression Example: Objective 4 Under the Physical DomainPhysicalObjective 4Not Yet1234Experiments withdifferent ways of moving Rolls over several timesto get toy Crawls Cruises Takes a few steps Takes steps, pushing apush-toy or chair Moves from crawling tositting and back again Walks across room Uses a hurried walk Walks backwards Pushes riding toy withfeet while steering Uses a walker to get tothe table Marches around room5678Moves purposefullyfrom place to place withcontrolCoordinates increasinglycomplex movements inplay and games Runs Avoids obstacles andpeople while moving Starts and stops usingwheelchair Walks up and down stairsalternating feet Climbs up and down onplayground equipment Rides tricycle usingpedals Gallops but not smoothly Runs smoothly andquickly, changesdirections, stops andstarts quickly Steers wheelchair intosmall playground spaces Jumps and spins Moves through obstaclecourse Gallops and skips withease Plays “Follow the Leader,”using a variety of travelingmovements91011Uses a variety oftraveling movements,varying speed, pathways,and direction Gallops quickly in azigzag line Hops 15 feet in a straightline, both forward andbackward Skips in a curved linearound obstacles, e.g.,cones Walks on two feet andtwo hands (bear crawl),traveling forward,backwards, and sideways1213Coordinates multiplecomplex movementswhile traveling Runs down the fieldwith a partner, tossing afootball back and forth Moves around thestage to perform achoreographed dance Runs while kicking a ballforward Walks forward whilethrowing and catchinga ball Jogs forward whiledribbling a ball with onehandIntroductionNotes:xxivAs exemplified above, GOLD uses colored bands to represent the associateddevelopmental and learning expectations for a given year of life or academicIntroductionprogram year. Each band correspondsto the xxivrange of widely held expectations(WHE) for a particular age/grade. Knowledge, skills, and abilities that fall withina child’s respective colored band are meeting widely held expectations for thatobjective or dimension. Those that fall to the left of the colored band are belownBirth to 1 at fall to the right are exceeding expectations. ColoredIntroductionn 1indicateto 2 yearsbands that fall completely under the “Not Yet” levelthat it is not yetng.developmentally appropriate to expect children tondemonstrate2 to 3 yearsthe skill(s). WHEGOLD ODL B-3 Main.indd 26were developed by panels of experts in child development based on the latest3/24/17 12:51 PMyearPreschool 3 classn n n n theoryn nnn ton1 n the six domains thatRanges (color-coded)n nprogressionsn n nfornn2 yearsnhave been developed.havewhichWHEn n1 ton PreK 4 classn n n n n n n n nFigure 3. GOLD Coloredn 2 toBands3 yearsn KindergartennBirth1 yearn n n n n n nnnnnnto nn nn nPreschooln n 3 classn n n n n n nnn1 ton2 yearsclassnnn n nn nPreKn 4nn n n n n n n nn n n n n n nn n2 to n3 yearsn Kindergartenn n n n n n n nnnPreschool 3 class n First Gradenn nn nn nn n n nnnn nn nn nn n n nnnPreK 4 classn nnn n n nn nSecondn nGradenn nn nn nn n n n n nn nKindergartenn n n nn nThirdn Gradenn n n n n n n nn First Graden n n nn n n n n n n n nn Second Graden n n nanges (color-coded)n n n nn n n n26Demonstrates traveling skillsMoves to exploreimmediate environmentvelopment and learning.n n n nn n n nn n n nGOLD Technical Manual 2020nFirst GradenSecond GradenThird Grade
7GOLD Technical Manual 2020The Purpose of GOLD Users must understand the central purpose of any assessment to ensure thatthey actually assess the intended outcomes. Therefore, it is valuable to delineateappropriate and inappropriate uses. GOLD has been designed and externallyvalidated for use as a formative, developmental, authentic, and criterion-referencedassessment. Its primary purpose is to provide teachers with instructionallyrelevant information about the children they teach. Fig