AUGUST 2018DISCUSSION PAPER SERIES NO. 2018-08E-Education in the Philippines:The Case of Technical Education and SkillsDevelopment Authority Online ProgramMadeline Dumaua-Cabautan, Sylwyn C. Calizo,Francis Mark A. Quimba, and Lachmi C. PacioThe PIDS Discussion Paper Series constitutes studies that are preliminary and subject to further revisions. They are being circulated in a limited number of copies only forpurposes of soliciting comments and suggestions for further refinements. The studies under the Series are unedited and unreviewed. The views and opinions expressed are thoseof the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute. Not for quotation without permission from the author(s) and the Institute.CONTACT US:RESEARCH INFORMATION DEPARTMENTPhilippine Institute for Development Studies18th Floor, Three Cyberpod Centris - North TowerEDSA corner Quezon Avenue, Quezon City, [email protected]( 632) 372-1291/( 632) 372-1292

E-Education in the Philippines: The Case of TechnicalEducation and Skills Development Authority (TESDA)Online Program (TOP)Madeline Dumaua-Cabautan, Sylwyn C. Calizo,Francis Mark A. Quimba and Lachmi C. PacioPHILIPPINE INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIESAugust 2018

AbstractEducation and training for productive employment play a crucial role in the social andeconomic plans of a developing country like the Philippines. Technical and vocationaleducation and training (TVET) in the country has been viewed as a tool to help equip thepeople with the necessary skills for employment. In effect, this increases their incomepotential, and eventually, remove them from poverty. To reach more people, more so, thosein the remotest places, TESDA introduced information, communications, and technology(ICT) into TVET and launched the TESDA Online Program (TOP) in 2012. TOP is the firstPhilippine institution to offer massive open online courses. Current TESDA statistics estimatethat more than a million Filipinos were able to access and utilize the TOP. This study assesseshow ICT has enabled the Filipinos to have access and use online technical education offeredfree by e-TESDA program. It also acknowledges the unlimited opportunities offered by TOPthrough its courses and the potential number of users/beneficiaries. The vision of a globallycompetent Filipino workforce with advanced skills can be realized with the encouragingresults of the TOP accreditation and certification. Read more about the recommendations onhow to improve the current TOP in this study.Keywords: Philippines, digital economy, TVET, e-education, e-learning, technical andvocational education and training, Technical Education and Skills Development Authority,information and communication technology, digital literacy1

Table of Contents1.Introduction1.1 TESDA Mandate, Vision, Mision1.2 TVET Quick Facts1.3 TVET Delivery Modes45552. The TESDA Online Program (TOP) for TVET2.1 Concept and Learning Model2.2 Coverage of TVET Clients2.3 Registration and Enrolment2.4 Course Offerings and Sectoral Orientation2.5 eLearning Materials2.6 Cost of Enrolment, Assessment and Certification2.7 Governance and Management66788910113. Statistics on TOP3.1 Registration3.2 Enrollment3.3 Mapping of TOP Registered Users from January 8-22, 2018111112134. Analysis of the TESDA Online Program4.1 Results of previous TOP studies4.2 Perception Survey last January 26 - February 6, 20181616175. Discussions and Conclusion5.1 Course offerings5.2 Impact on training cost and employability5.3 Conclusion232323246. Proposals to improve e TESDA6.1 TESDA to continuously lobby for the institutionalizationof eTESDA Division6.2 Ensure continuous development of quality and relevant onlineprogram courses6.3 Strengthen partnerships/linkages6.4 Promote TOP through advocacy activities242426267. Bibliography2725List of FiguresFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Classroom to online learning modelsConcept of TESDA online programPlatform for accessing TOPAgglomeration of TOP users over provincial HDIUse of the TOP in blended learning: case of the TESDA women’s center26781516

List of TablesTable 1.Table 2.Table 3.Table 4.Table 5.Table 6.Table 7.Table 8.Table 9.Table 10.Table 11.Table 12.Table 13aTable 13b.Table 14.Table 15.Table 16.Number of e-TESDA course offering (as of January 2018)Cumulative number of course offeringse-TESDA’s private partners in course developmentNumber of registered users and enrolleesNumber of registered users by sexNumber of online sessions per locationNumber of enrollees by eTESDA course offeringTOP users from January 8-22, 2018 by sexTOP registered users from January 8-22, 2018by highest educational attainmentTOP registered users from January 8-22, 2018 by age groupTOP registered users from January 8-22, 2018 by location/regionDistribution of demographic profileEnrollees’ courses, purpose and benefitsEnrollees’ status, assessment and certificationChallenges and opportunities faced in terms of the accessibilityBottlenecks/barriers affecting performanceEnrollees’ overall experience and satisfaction ratings of eTESDAprogram99101112121213131414181920212122List of AnnexesAnnex 1.Annex 2.Annex 3.Annex 4.Annex 5.e-TESDA course offerings and their descriptionNumber of enrolled users per course as of December 31, 2017Report highlights of the focus group discussions (FGDs)Report highlights of the key informant interviews (KIIs)How to enroll in e-TESDA32836404145

E-Education in the Philippines: The Case of Technical Education and SkillsDevelopment Authority (TESDA) Online Program (TOP)Madeline Dumaua-Cabautan, Sylwyn C. Calizo, Francis Mark A. Quimba1and Lachmi C. Pacio,21. IntroductionEducation and training for productive employment plays a crucial role in the social andeconomic plans of a developing country like the Philippines. Technical and vocationaleducation and training (TVET) in the country has been viewed as a tool to help equip thepeople with the necessary skills for employment, in effect increasing their income potentialand eventually removing them from the state of poverty. Moreover, the skills of the currentworking population are improved by upgrading or developing new competencies resulting inincreased productivity and enhanced employability.In 2016, there were about 2.27 million TVET enrollees under the Philippines TechnicalEducation and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), where 2.15 million graduated. Withthe increasing demand for TVET, there was a need to reconsider new learning methods toexpand capacity by accommodating those who cannot enter the TVET Institutions (TVIs) andto broaden access and opportunities to those living in the rural and far flung areas.There is a need to expand access of quality TVET to reach out to more people, more so thosein the remotest places. Building additional TVIs to address this need requires a lot ofinvestments and time. With the advent of the ICT, fast tracking the expansion of the scopethrough eLearning becomes a likely possibility. eLearning also increases the absorptivecapacity of TVIs to deliver TVET programs and services. The growing percentage of Filipinoswith internet connections of 63.58% in 2016 according to National TelecommunicationCommission (NTC), and the increasing trend of digitization of learning, tapping thistechnology had brought more people into enrolling in TVET.In response to expanding the reach of TVET, the Philippines, through TESDA, initiated in2011 and was officially launched in 2012 the TESDA Online Program (TOP), the firstPhilippine institution to offer Massive Open Online Courses. Current statistics from TESDAestimates that more than a million Filipinos were able to access and utilize the TOP. Hence,the aim of this research is to assess how ICT has enabled the Filipinos to have access and useonline technical education offered free by e-TESDA program. Likewise, in an attempt to studythe contribution of these online courses to personal/national development, ICT initiatives ononline courses were described that showed how technical education became more accessibleand inclusive for all. The study further stresses the role that TESDA plays in offering different12Consultant, Research Analyst II and Research Fellow, Philippine Institute for Development StudieseTESDA unit, Technical Education and Skills Development Authority4

online courses that have enabled the last mile consumers to enrol in them conveniently andaffordably.1.1 TESDA Mandate, Vision, MisionThe Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) was establishedthrough Republic Act No. 7796 otherwise known as the "Technical Education and SkillsDevelopment Act of 1994.’’ It aims to encourage the full participation and mobilization of theindustry, labor, local government units and technical-vocational institutions in the skillsdevelopment of the human resources of the country. The merging of the National Manpowerand Youth Council (NMYC) of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), theBureau of Technical and Vocational Education (BTVE) of the now defunct Department ofEducation, Culture and Sports (DECS), and The Apprenticeship Program of the Bureau ofLocal Employment (BLE) of the DOLE gave birth to TESDA. The coming together of theseoffices, one of the key recommendations of the 1991 Report of the Congressional Commissionon Education, was meant to reduce overlapping in skills development activities initiated byvarious public and private sector agencies, and to provide national directions for the country'stechnical-vocational education and training (TVET) system. The TVET system involves, inaddition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and acquisitionof practical skills relating to occupations in various sectors. It comprises organized programsas part of the school system (formal) and organized classes outside the school system (nonformal) approaches. (UNESCO)TESDA formulates technical education and skills development plans, sets appropriate skillsstandards and tests, coordinates and monitors technical education and skills developmentpolicies and programs, and provides policy directions and guidelines for resource allocationfor the TVET institutions in both the private and public sectors. Aside from this, TESDA isalso mandated to ensure the delivery of high quality and accessible TVET. Thus, public andprivate TVET Institutions register their programs with TESDA before offering these to thepublic. Likewise, these registered educational institutions report outputs of training programsto TESDA.1.2 TVET Quick FactsAs of November 2017, there are about 263 Training Regulations developed by TESDA, withindustry. There are about 3,920 TVET Institutions, 9 percent of which are public while 91percent are private. More than fifteen thousand (15,146) TVET Programs are registered withTESDA. From the 1.51 million applicants assessed in 2016, about 1.39 million were Certifiedwhich accounts for about 92%. In achieving such results, TESDA established its Assessmentand Certification Infrastructure that comprises of an estimated 1,450 Assessment Centers,5,580 Competency Assesors and 14,000 Certified Trainers.1.3 TVET Delivery ModesThe TVET can be delivered through Institutions with registered programs, EnterpriseCommunity based organizations, Mobile training and as mentioned, the TESDA OnlineProgram (TOP). Institution-based refer to the delivery of training programs by public andprivate training institutions. Enterprise-based training programs are implemented withincompanies/firms or through dual training arrangements and apprenticeship schemes.5

Community-based training delivery is conducted at the local/ community level, mostly inpartnership with the local government units (LGUs) and the non-government organizations(NGOs); any individual of any level or age 18 years old and over can join these programs.2. The TESDA Online Program (TOP) for TVET2.1 Concept and Learning ModelIn formulating plans to enhance and develop the delivery of technical-vocational educationskills in the country in a more effective and efficient way, the TESDA launched its OnlineProgram (TOP) in 2012. This was in response to one of the strategies set forth in the NationalTechnical Education and Skills Development Plan (NTESDP) of 2011-2016 which states thatinformation and communication technologies (ICT) must be integrated in vocationaleducation. Conceptualized in 2008, TOP has become an initiative to reach thousands ofunreached Filipinos globally through ICT providing more technology-driven and technologymanaged teaching and learning tools.Thus, TESDA decided to adopt alternative to the traditional classroom based ‘Face-to-FaceLearning Model’ which is the online program hybrid learning model or the ‘Learn to Work’Model (Figure 1).Figure 1. Classroom to online learning modelsSource: e-TESDA Project Management Unit6

The TOP utilizes open education resource framework that aims to make technical education 3accessible and inclusive using ICT. The objectives include, among others: (i) to broadenaccess and opportunities to quality TVET by harnessing technology; (ii) to improve quality ofTVET delivery through standardized content of TVET programs; (iii) to increase absorptivecapacity of TVET institutions; and (iv) expand TESDA services beyond borders. The programwas conceived to provide opportunities to the citizens anytime, anywhere, by offering freeonline TVET courses and learning materials and providing them a chance to get skills and becertified to increase their employability.The TOP process, to put it simply is - access the free online TVET education (MOOC),practice the skills anywhere or at home, be a certified worker and eventually get that job(Figure 2). In fact, the goal is to “learn at your own pace, in your own time, at your ownplace”: to relearn the lessons over and over for mastery; to apply or to put into practice thelearning in a similar workplace; to be assess